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Title: SU-E-T-610: Phosphor-Based Fiber Optic Probes for Proton Beam Characterization

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate feasibility of using fiber optics probes with rare-earth-based phosphor tips for proton beam radiation dosimetry. We designed and fabricated a fiber probe with submillimeter resolution (<0.5 mm3) based on TbF3 phosphors and evaluated its performance for measurement of proton beam including profiles and range. Methods: The fiber optic probe with TbF3 phosphor tip, embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms was irradiated with double scattering proton beam with energy of 180 MeV. Luminescence spectroscopy was performed by a CCD-coupled spectrograph to analyze the emission spectra of the fiber tip. In order to measure the spatial beam profile and percentage depth dose, we used singular value decomposition method to spectrally separate the phosphors ionoluminescence signal from the background Cerenkov radiation signal. Results: The spectra of the TbF3 fiber probe showed characteristic ionoluminescence emission peaks at 489, 542, 586, and 620 nm. By using singular value decomposition we found the contribution of the ionoluminescence signal to measure the percentage depth dose in phantoms and compared that with measurements performed with ion chamber. We observed quenching effect at the spread out Bragg peak region, manifested as under-responding of the signal, due to the high LET of the beam. However, the beam profiles weremore » not dramatically affected by the quenching effect. Conclusion: We have evaluated the performance of a fiber optic probe with submillimeter resolution for proton beam dosimetry. We demonstrated feasibility of spectral separation of the Cerenkov radiation from the collected signal. Such fiber probes can be used for measurements of proton beams profile and range. The experimental apparatus and spectroscopy method developed in this work provide a robust platform for characterization of proton-irradiated nanophosphor particles for ultralow fluence photodynamic therapy or molecular imaging applications.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Univ Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22538120
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BEAM PROFILES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; CHERENKOV RADIATION; DEPTH DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; DOSIMETRY; EMISSION SPECTRA; FIBER OPTICS; IONIZATION CHAMBERS; LET; MEV RANGE 100-1000; PERFORMANCE; PHANTOMS; PHOSPHORS; PROBES; PROTON BEAMS; RADIOTHERAPY; SIGNALS

Citation Formats

Darafsheh, A, Soldner, A, Liu, H, Kassaee, A, Zhu, T, and Finlay, J. SU-E-T-610: Phosphor-Based Fiber Optic Probes for Proton Beam Characterization. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4924973.
Darafsheh, A, Soldner, A, Liu, H, Kassaee, A, Zhu, T, & Finlay, J. SU-E-T-610: Phosphor-Based Fiber Optic Probes for Proton Beam Characterization. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4924973.
Darafsheh, A, Soldner, A, Liu, H, Kassaee, A, Zhu, T, and Finlay, J. Mon . "SU-E-T-610: Phosphor-Based Fiber Optic Probes for Proton Beam Characterization". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4924973.
@article{osti_22538120,
title = {SU-E-T-610: Phosphor-Based Fiber Optic Probes for Proton Beam Characterization},
author = {Darafsheh, A and Soldner, A and Liu, H and Kassaee, A and Zhu, T and Finlay, J},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To investigate feasibility of using fiber optics probes with rare-earth-based phosphor tips for proton beam radiation dosimetry. We designed and fabricated a fiber probe with submillimeter resolution (<0.5 mm3) based on TbF3 phosphors and evaluated its performance for measurement of proton beam including profiles and range. Methods: The fiber optic probe with TbF3 phosphor tip, embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms was irradiated with double scattering proton beam with energy of 180 MeV. Luminescence spectroscopy was performed by a CCD-coupled spectrograph to analyze the emission spectra of the fiber tip. In order to measure the spatial beam profile and percentage depth dose, we used singular value decomposition method to spectrally separate the phosphors ionoluminescence signal from the background Cerenkov radiation signal. Results: The spectra of the TbF3 fiber probe showed characteristic ionoluminescence emission peaks at 489, 542, 586, and 620 nm. By using singular value decomposition we found the contribution of the ionoluminescence signal to measure the percentage depth dose in phantoms and compared that with measurements performed with ion chamber. We observed quenching effect at the spread out Bragg peak region, manifested as under-responding of the signal, due to the high LET of the beam. However, the beam profiles were not dramatically affected by the quenching effect. Conclusion: We have evaluated the performance of a fiber optic probe with submillimeter resolution for proton beam dosimetry. We demonstrated feasibility of spectral separation of the Cerenkov radiation from the collected signal. Such fiber probes can be used for measurements of proton beams profile and range. The experimental apparatus and spectroscopy method developed in this work provide a robust platform for characterization of proton-irradiated nanophosphor particles for ultralow fluence photodynamic therapy or molecular imaging applications.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4924973},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}
  • Purpose: A fiber-optic radiation sensor using Cerenkov radiation has been widely studied for use as a dosimeter for proton therapeutic beam. Although the fiber-optic radiation sensor has already been investigated for proton therapeutic, it has been examined relatively little work for clinical therapeutic proton beams. In this study, we evaluated characteristics of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for clinical therapeutic proton beams. We experimentally evaluated dose-rate dependence, dose response and energy dependence for the proton beam. Methods: A fiber-optic radiation sensor was placed in a water phantom. Beams with energies of low, middle and high were used in the passively-scattered protonmore » therapeutic beam at the National Cancer Center in Korea. The sensor consists of two plastic optical fibers (POF). A reference POF and 2 cm longer POF were used to utilize the subtraction method for having sensitive volume. Each POF is optically coupled to the Multi-Anode Photo Multiplier Tube (MAPMT) and the MAPMT signals are processed using National Instruments Data Acquisition System (NI-DAQ). We were investigated dosimetric properties including dose-rate dependence, dose response and energy dependence. Results: We have successfully evaluated characteristics of a fiber optic radiation sensor using Cerenkov radiation. The fiber-optic radiation sensor showed the dose response linearity and low energy dependence. In addition, as the dose-rate was increased, Cerenkov radiation increased linearly. Conclusion: We evaluated the basic characteristics of the fiber optic radiation sensor, the dosimetry tool, to raise the quality of proton therapy. Based on the research, we developed a real time dosimetry system of the optic fiber to confirm the real time beam position and energy for therapeutic proton pencil beam.« less
  • Purpose: We had developed and evaluated a new dosimetric system for proton therapy using array of fiber-optic Cerenkov radiation sensor (FOCRS) which can measure a percent depth dose (PDD) instantly. In this study, the Bragg peaks and spread out Bragg peak (SOBP) of the proton beams measured by FOCRS array were compared with those measured by an ion chamber. Methods and Method: We fabricated an optical fiber array of FOCRS in a handmade phantom which is composed of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA). There are 75 holes of 1mm diameter inside the phantom which is designed to be exposed in direction ofmore » beam when it is emerged in water phantom. The proton beam irradiation was carried out using IBA cyclotron PROTEUS 235 at national cancer center in Korea and a commercial data acquisition system was used to digitize the analog signal. Results: The measured Bragg peak and SOBP for the proton ranges of 7∼ 20 cm were well matched with the result from ion chamber. The comparison results show that the depth of proton beam ranges and the width of SOBP measured by array of FOCRS are comparable with the measurement from multi-layer ion chamber (MLIC) although there are some uncertainty in the measurement of FOCRS array for some specific beam ranges. Conclusion: The newly developed FOCRS array based dosimetric system for proton therapy can efficiently reduce the time and effort needed for proton beam range measurement compared to the conventional method and has the potential to be used for the proton pencil beam application.« less
  • Purpose: A fiber-optic radiation sensor using Cerenkov radiation (FOCR) has been widely studied for use as a dosimeter for proton therapeutic beam. We developed the FOCR, and it applied to patient-specific point dose measurement in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the FOCR system for proton therapy QA. Methods: Calibration of FOCR was performed with an ionization chamber whose absolute doses were determined according to the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. To determine the calibration curve, the FOCR was irradiated perpendicularly to the proton beam at the 13 dose levels steps. We selected five actual patient treatment plans performed at proton therapymore » center and compared the resulting FOCR measurements with the ionization chamber measurements. Results: The Cerenkov light yield of the FOCR increases linearly with as the dose measured using the ionization chamber increases from 0 cGy to 500 cGy. The results indicate that the fitting curve is linear, suggesting that dose measurement based on the light yield of the FOCR is possible. The results of proton radiation dose QA performed using the FOCR for 10 proton fields and five patients are good agreement with an ionization chamber. Conclusion: We carried out the patient QA using the FOCR for proton therapeutic beam and evaluated the effectiveness of the FOCR as a proton therapy QA tool. Our results indicate that the FOCR is suitable for use in patient QA of clinical proton beams.« less
  • Purpose: Proton therapy aims to deliver a high dose in a well-defined target volume while sparing the healthy surrounding tissues thanks to their inherent depth dose characteristic (Bragg peak). In proton therapy, several techniques can be used to deliver the dose into the target volume. The one that allows the best conformity with the tumor, is called PBS (Pencil Beam Scanning). The measurement of the proton pencil beam spot profile (spot size) and position is very important for the accurate delivery of dose to the target volume with a good conformity. Methods: We have developed a fine segmented detector arraymore » to monitor the PBS. A prototype beam monitor using Cherenkov radiation in clear plastic optical fibers (cPOF) has been developed for continuous display of the pencil beam status during the therapeutic proton Pencil Beam Scanning mode operation. The benefit of using Cherenkov radiation is that the optical output is linear to the dose. Pedestal substraction and the gain adjustment between channels are performed. Spot profiles of various pencil beam energies(100 MeV to 226 MeV) are measured. Two dimensional gaussian fit is used to analyze the beam width and the spot center. The results are compared with that of Lynx(Scintillator-based sensor with CCD camera) and EBT3 Film. Results: The measured gaussian widths using fiber array system changes from 13 to 5 mm for the beam energies from 100 to 226 MeV. The results agree well with Lynx and Film within the systematic error. Conclusion: The results demonstrate good monitoring capability of the system. Not only measuing the spot profile but also monitoring dose map by accumulating each spot measurement is available. The x-y monitoing system with 128 channel readout will be mounted to the snout for the in-situ real time monitoring.« less
  • Purpose: To construct a dose monitoring system based on an endorectal balloon coupled to thin scintillating fibers to study the dose delivered to the rectum during prostate cancer proton therapy Methods: The Geant4 Monte Carlo toolkit version 9.6p02 was used to simulate prostate cancer proton therapy treatments of an endorectal balloon (for immobilization of a 2.9 cm diameter prostate gland) and a set of 34 scintillating fibers symmetrically placed around the balloon and perpendicular to the proton beam direction (for dosimetry measurements) Results: A linear response of the fibers to the dose delivered was observed within <2%, a property thatmore » makes them good candidates for real time dosimetry. Results obtained show that the closest fiber recorded about 1/3 of the dose to the target with a 1/r{sup 2} decrease in the dose distribution as one goes toward the frontal and distal top fibers. Very low dose was recorded by the bottom fibers (about 45 times comparatively), which is a clear indication that the overall volume of the rectal wall that is exposed to a higher dose is relatively minimized. Further analysis indicated a simple scaling relationship between the dose to the prostate and the dose to the top fibers (a linear fit gave a slope of −0.07±0.07 MeV per treatment Gy) Conclusion: Thin (1 mm × 1 mm × 100 cm) long scintillating fibers were found to be ideal for real time in-vivo dose measurement to the rectum for prostate cancer proton therapy. The linear response of the fibers to the dose delivered makes them good candidates of dosimeters. With thorough calibration and the ability to define a good correlation between the dose to the target and the dose to the fibers, such dosimeters can be used for real time dose verification to the target.« less