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Title: Characterization of radioactive wastes with respect to harmful materials

Abstract

In addendum 4 to the license of the German KONRAD repository, which considers mainly radiological aspects, a water law permit was issued in order to prevent the pollution of the near-surface groundwater. The water law permit stipulates limitations for 10 radionuclides and 2 groups of radionuclides as well as mass limitations for 94 substances and materials relevant for water protection issues. Two collateral clauses, i.e. additional requirements imposed by the licensing authority, include demands on the monitoring, registering and balancing of non-radioactive harmful substances and materials /1/. In order to fulfill the requirements of the water law permit the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) being the operator of the KONRAD repository has developed a concept, which ensures the compliance with all requirements of the water law permit and which provides standardized easy manageable guidance for the waste producers to describe their wastes. On 15 March 2011 the competent water authority, the 'Niedersaechsischer Landesbetrieb fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Kuesten- und Naturschutz' (NLWKN) issued the approval for this concept. Being the most essential part of this concept the procedural method and the developed description of nonradioactive waste package constituents by use of standardized lists of materials and containers is addressed and presentedmore » in this paper. The waste producer has to describe his waste package in a standardized way on the base of the lists of materials and containers. For each material in the list a comprehensive description is given comprising the composition, scope of application, quality control measures, thresholds and other data. Each entry in the list has to be approved by NLWKN. The scope of the lists is defined by the waste producers' needs. Using some particular materials as examples, the approval procedure for including materials in the list is described. The procedure of describing the material composition has to be considered in the KONRAD waste acceptance requirements. The respective part of these requirements will be introduced. In order to clarify the procedure of describing waste packages by use of the standardized lists of materials and containers some examples of typical waste package descriptions will be presented. (authors)« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3]
  1. Bundesamt fur Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)
  2. Braunschweig (Germany)
  3. Institut fur Sicherheitstechnologie (ISTec), Cologne (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
American Society of Mechanical Engineers - ASME, Nuclear Engineering Division, Environmental Engineering Division, Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990 (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
22535149
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: ICEM2013 - ASME 2013: 15. International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, Brussels (Belgium), 8-12 Sep 2013; Other Information: Country of input: France; 4 refs
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; BUNDESAMT FUER STRAHLENSCHUTZ; GROUND WATER; NONRADIOACTIVE WASTES; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; RADIOISOTOPES

Citation Formats

Kugel, Karin, Steyer, Stefan, Brennecke, Peter, Gruendler, Detlef, Boetsch, Wilma, and Haider, Claudia. Characterization of radioactive wastes with respect to harmful materials. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1115/ICEM2013-96134.
Kugel, Karin, Steyer, Stefan, Brennecke, Peter, Gruendler, Detlef, Boetsch, Wilma, & Haider, Claudia. Characterization of radioactive wastes with respect to harmful materials. United States. doi:10.1115/ICEM2013-96134.
Kugel, Karin, Steyer, Stefan, Brennecke, Peter, Gruendler, Detlef, Boetsch, Wilma, and Haider, Claudia. Mon . "Characterization of radioactive wastes with respect to harmful materials". United States. doi:10.1115/ICEM2013-96134.
@article{osti_22535149,
title = {Characterization of radioactive wastes with respect to harmful materials},
author = {Kugel, Karin and Steyer, Stefan and Brennecke, Peter and Gruendler, Detlef and Boetsch, Wilma and Haider, Claudia},
abstractNote = {In addendum 4 to the license of the German KONRAD repository, which considers mainly radiological aspects, a water law permit was issued in order to prevent the pollution of the near-surface groundwater. The water law permit stipulates limitations for 10 radionuclides and 2 groups of radionuclides as well as mass limitations for 94 substances and materials relevant for water protection issues. Two collateral clauses, i.e. additional requirements imposed by the licensing authority, include demands on the monitoring, registering and balancing of non-radioactive harmful substances and materials /1/. In order to fulfill the requirements of the water law permit the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) being the operator of the KONRAD repository has developed a concept, which ensures the compliance with all requirements of the water law permit and which provides standardized easy manageable guidance for the waste producers to describe their wastes. On 15 March 2011 the competent water authority, the 'Niedersaechsischer Landesbetrieb fuer Wasserwirtschaft, Kuesten- und Naturschutz' (NLWKN) issued the approval for this concept. Being the most essential part of this concept the procedural method and the developed description of nonradioactive waste package constituents by use of standardized lists of materials and containers is addressed and presented in this paper. The waste producer has to describe his waste package in a standardized way on the base of the lists of materials and containers. For each material in the list a comprehensive description is given comprising the composition, scope of application, quality control measures, thresholds and other data. Each entry in the list has to be approved by NLWKN. The scope of the lists is defined by the waste producers' needs. Using some particular materials as examples, the approval procedure for including materials in the list is described. The procedure of describing the material composition has to be considered in the KONRAD waste acceptance requirements. The respective part of these requirements will be introduced. In order to clarify the procedure of describing waste packages by use of the standardized lists of materials and containers some examples of typical waste package descriptions will be presented. (authors)},
doi = {10.1115/ICEM2013-96134},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Mon Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}

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  • In addition to the radiological characterization and control measures the materials composition has to be described and respective control measures need to be implemented. The approach to verify the materials composition depends on the status of the waste: - During conditioning of raw waste the control of the materials composition has to be taken into account. - For already conditioned waste a retrospective qualification of the process might be possible. - If retrospective process qualification is not possible, legacy waste can be qualified by spot checking according to the materials composition requirements The integration of the control of the materialmore » composition in the quality control system for radioactive waste is discussed and examples of control measures are given. With the materials-list and the packaging-list the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) provides an appropriate tool to describe the materials composition of radioactive waste packages. The control measures with respect to the materials composition integrate well in the established quality control framework for radioactive waste. The system is flexible enough to deal with waste products of different qualities: raw waste, qualified conditioned waste or legacy waste. Control measures to verify the materials composition can be accomplished with minimal radiation exposure and without undue burden on the waste producers and conditioners. (authors)« less
  • Various radioactive residues (raffinates) and wastes from the processing of uranium and thorium between 1957 and 1966 are stored in four pits at Weldon Spring, Missouri. The US Department of Energy (DOE) plans to stabilize all the contaminated materials on a long-term (more than 1000-year) basis. The effectiveness of stabilization measures are evaluated by estimating radioactive releases under two options: (1) no action, and (2) improved containment using the existing raffinate pits. Two major pathways of radiation exposure are examined: (1) airborne radioactive gases and particulates, and (2) seepage into near-surface groundwater. The relative reductions of releases into the airmore » and groundwater for a reference stabilization option (improved containment) are analyzed using mathematical models for radioactive and particulate gas fluxes and atmospheric dispersion, as well as groundwaterr transport and dispersion. The consequent health risks for nearby individuals and the general public are also evaluated. This study focuses on the migration of radionuclides under existing conditions and evaluates the effectiveness of proposed stabilization measures at the pits. Results indicate that the potential effects to the general public would be insignificant. 22 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.« less
  • Currently, Ontario Hydro handles approximately 3,000 m/sup 3/ of low and intermediate level solid radioactive reactor wastes annually. Wastes are stored centrally at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development (BNPD) Radioactive Waste Operations Site. Operational data are analysed and used to characterize the radioactive waste. The data analysed in this paper were collected over the three-year period from 1976 to 1978, inclusive. The analysis presented in this paper represents the first step in the development of an automated waste data retrieval and analysis system for Ontario Hydro.
  • The Co-operative Siting Process is a non-confrontational way to site a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management facility in Ontario. The facility will be designed to accommodate approximately 880,000 m{sup 3} of LLRW. Four sets of general facility concepts, appropriate for the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and the general site conditions, are being considered. These include engineered mounds, shallow burial in trenches, burial in open pit with previous surround, and intermediate depth rock disposal concepts. The communities interested in offering a site are located in the Canadian Shield where the topography is dominated by rolling hills with reliefsmore » of up to 50 meters and hydrogeological conditions are primarily controlled by fractures in the rock and by the types and distribution of glacial sediments. Climatic conditions can be classified as humid-continental. The objective of site characterization activity is to assess the suitability of potential sites for long-term containment of LLRW in the geosphere and their safe isolation from the biosphere. An initial phase involves exploratory studies designed to reduce larger areas to smaller areas and eventually to candidate sites. The second phase involves site-specific studies designed to maximize the changes of identifying more than one site for different facility requirements and complying with the regulatory requirements and performance expectations.« less
  • Solidification of evaporator concentrates, filter sludges, and spent ion exchange resins used in LWR streams is discussed. The introduction of solidification agents to immobilize these sludges and resins can increase the volume of these wastes by a factor of slightly over 1 to greater than 2, depending on the binder chosen. The agents and methods used or proposed for use in solidification of LWR power plant wastes are generally suitable for treating most of the other-than-high-level wastes generated throughout the entire fuel cycle. Among the solidification agents most commonly used or suggested for use are the inorganic cements and organicmore » plastics, which are listed and compared. A summary of considerations important in choosing a solidification agent is presented tabularly. (JRD)« less