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Title: SU-E-T-569: Neutron Shielding Calculation Using Analytical and Multi-Monte Carlo Method for Proton Therapy Facility

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the shielding wall design to protect patients, staff and member of the general public for secondary neutron using a simply analytic solution, multi-Monte Carlo code MCNPX, ANISN and FLUKA. Methods: An analytical and multi-Monte Carlo method were calculated for proton facility (Sumitomo Heavy Industry Ltd.) at Samsung Medical Center in Korea. The NCRP-144 analytical evaluation methods, which produced conservative estimates on the dose equivalent values for the shielding, were used for analytical evaluations. Then, the radiation transport was simulated with the multi-Monte Carlo code. The neutron dose at evaluation point is got by the value using the production of the simulation value and the neutron dose coefficient introduced in ICRP-74. Results: The evaluation points of accelerator control room and control room entrance are mainly influenced by the point of the proton beam loss. So the neutron dose equivalent of accelerator control room for evaluation point is 0.651, 1.530, 0.912, 0.943 mSv/yr and the entrance of cyclotron room is 0.465, 0.790, 0.522, 0.453 mSv/yr with calculation by the method of NCRP-144 formalism, ANISN, FLUKA and MCNP, respectively. The most of Result of MCNPX and FLUKA using the complicated geometry showed smaller values than Result of ANISN. Conclusion: Themore » neutron shielding for a proton therapy facility has been evaluated by the analytic model and multi-Monte Carlo methods. We confirmed that the setting of shielding was located in well accessible area to people when the proton facility is operated.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22496283
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; DOSE EQUIVALENTS; EVALUATION; MEDICAL ESTABLISHMENTS; MEDICAL PERSONNEL; NEUTRON BEAMS; PATIENTS; PROTON BEAMS; RADIATION PROTECTION; RADIOTHERAPY; SHIELDING; SIMULATION

Citation Formats

Cho, S, Shin, E H, Kim, J, Ahn, S H, Chung, K, Kim, D-H, Han, Y, and Choi, D H. SU-E-T-569: Neutron Shielding Calculation Using Analytical and Multi-Monte Carlo Method for Proton Therapy Facility. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4924931.
Cho, S, Shin, E H, Kim, J, Ahn, S H, Chung, K, Kim, D-H, Han, Y, & Choi, D H. SU-E-T-569: Neutron Shielding Calculation Using Analytical and Multi-Monte Carlo Method for Proton Therapy Facility. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4924931.
Cho, S, Shin, E H, Kim, J, Ahn, S H, Chung, K, Kim, D-H, Han, Y, and Choi, D H. Mon . "SU-E-T-569: Neutron Shielding Calculation Using Analytical and Multi-Monte Carlo Method for Proton Therapy Facility". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4924931.
@article{osti_22496283,
title = {SU-E-T-569: Neutron Shielding Calculation Using Analytical and Multi-Monte Carlo Method for Proton Therapy Facility},
author = {Cho, S and Shin, E H and Kim, J and Ahn, S H and Chung, K and Kim, D-H and Han, Y and Choi, D H},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To evaluate the shielding wall design to protect patients, staff and member of the general public for secondary neutron using a simply analytic solution, multi-Monte Carlo code MCNPX, ANISN and FLUKA. Methods: An analytical and multi-Monte Carlo method were calculated for proton facility (Sumitomo Heavy Industry Ltd.) at Samsung Medical Center in Korea. The NCRP-144 analytical evaluation methods, which produced conservative estimates on the dose equivalent values for the shielding, were used for analytical evaluations. Then, the radiation transport was simulated with the multi-Monte Carlo code. The neutron dose at evaluation point is got by the value using the production of the simulation value and the neutron dose coefficient introduced in ICRP-74. Results: The evaluation points of accelerator control room and control room entrance are mainly influenced by the point of the proton beam loss. So the neutron dose equivalent of accelerator control room for evaluation point is 0.651, 1.530, 0.912, 0.943 mSv/yr and the entrance of cyclotron room is 0.465, 0.790, 0.522, 0.453 mSv/yr with calculation by the method of NCRP-144 formalism, ANISN, FLUKA and MCNP, respectively. The most of Result of MCNPX and FLUKA using the complicated geometry showed smaller values than Result of ANISN. Conclusion: The neutron shielding for a proton therapy facility has been evaluated by the analytic model and multi-Monte Carlo methods. We confirmed that the setting of shielding was located in well accessible area to people when the proton facility is operated.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4924931},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}
  • Purpose: In this study we present Monte Carlo based evaluation of the shielding effect for secondary neutrons from patient collimator, and secondary photons emitted in the process of neutron shielding by combination of moderator and boron-10 placed around patient collimator. Methods: The PHITS Monte Carlo Simulation radiation transport code was used to simulate the proton beam (Ep = 64 to 93 MeV) from a proton therapy facility. In this study, moderators (water, polyethylene and paraffin) and boron (pure {sup 10}B) were placed around patient collimator in this order. The rate of moderator and boron thicknesses was changed fixing the totalmore » thickness at 3cm. The secondary neutron and photons doses were evaluated as the ambient dose equivalent per absorbed dose [H*(10)/D]. Results: The secondary neutrons are shielded more effectively by combination moderators and boron. The most effective combination of shielding neutrons is the polyethylene of 2.4 cm thick and the boron of 0.6 cm thick and the maximum reduction rate is 47.3 %. The H*(10)/D of secondary photons in the control case is less than that of neutrons by two orders of magnitude and the maximum increase of secondary photons is 1.0 µSv/Gy with the polyethylene of 2.8 cm thick and the boron of 0.2 cm thick. Conclusion: The combination of moderators and boron is beneficial for shielding secondary neutrons. Both the secondary photons of control and those emitted in the shielding neutrons are very lower than the secondary neutrons and photon has low RBE in comparison with neutron. Therefore the secondary photons can be ignored in the shielding neutrons.This work was supported by JSPS Core-to-Core Program (No.23003). This work was supported by JSPS Core-to-Core Program (No.23003)« less
  • Purpose: The Monte Carlo (MC) method is a gold standard for dose calculation in radiotherapy. However, it is not a priori clear how many particles need to be simulated to achieve a given dose accuracy. Prior error estimate and stopping criterion are not well established for MC. This work aims to fill this gap. Methods: Due to the statistical nature of MC, our approach is based on one-sample t-test. We design the prior error estimate method based on the t-test, and then use this t-test based error estimate for developing a simulation stopping criterion. The three major components are asmore » follows.First, the source particles are randomized in energy, space and angle, so that the dose deposition from a particle to the voxel is independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.).Second, a sample under consideration in the t-test is the mean value of dose deposition to the voxel by sufficiently large number of source particles. Then according to central limit theorem, the sample as the mean value of i.i.d. variables is normally distributed with the expectation equal to the true deposited dose.Third, the t-test is performed with the null hypothesis that the difference between sample expectation (the same as true deposited dose) and on-the-fly calculated mean sample dose from MC is larger than a given error threshold, in addition to which users have the freedom to specify confidence probability and region of interest in the t-test based stopping criterion. Results: The method is validated for proton dose calculation. The difference between the MC Result based on the t-test prior error estimate and the statistical Result by repeating numerous MC simulations is within 1%. Conclusion: The t-test based prior error estimate and stopping criterion are developed for MC and validated for proton dose calculation. Xiang Hong and Hao Gao were partially supported by the NSFC (#11405105), the 973 Program (#2015CB856000) and the Shanghai Pujiang Talent Program (#14PJ1404500)« less
  • Purpose: Predicted PET images on the basis of analytical filtering approach for proton range verification has been successful developed and validated using FLUKA Monte Carlo (MC) codes and phantom measurements. The purpose of the study is to validate the effectiveness of analytical filtering model for proton range verification on GATE/GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulation codes. Methods: In this study, we performed two experiments for validation of predicted β+-isotope by the analytical model with GATE/GEANT4 simulations. The first experiments to evaluate the accuracy of predicting β+-yields as a function of irradiated proton energies. In second experiment, we simulate homogeneous phantoms of differentmore » materials irradiated by a mono-energetic pencil-like proton beam. The results of filtered β+-yields distributions by the analytical model is compared with those of MC simulated β+-yields in proximal and distal fall-off ranges. Results: The results investigate the distribution between filtered β+-yields and MC simulated β+-yields distribution in different conditions. First, we found that the analytical filtering can be applied over the whole range of the therapeutic energies. Second, the range difference between filtered β+-yields and MC simulated β+-yields at the distal fall-off region are within 1.5mm for all materials used. The findings validated the usefulness of analytical filtering model on range verification of proton therapy on GATE Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, there is a larger discrepancy between filtered prediction and MC simulated β+-yields using GATE code, especially in proximal region. This discrepancy might Result from the absence of wellestablished theoretical models for predicting the nuclear interactions. Conclusion: Despite the fact that large discrepancies of the distributions between MC-simulated and predicted β+-yields were observed, the study prove the effectiveness of analytical filtering model for proton range verification using GATE Monte Carlo simulation.« less
  • Purpose: Combination targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) is appealing because it can potentially exploit different mechanisms of action from multiple radionuclides as well as the variable dose rates due to the different radionuclide half-lives. The work describes the development of a multiobjective optimization algorithm to calculate the optimal ratio of radionuclide injection activities for delivery of combination TRT. Methods: The ‘diapeutic’ (diagnostic and therapeutic) agent, CLR1404, was used as a proof-of-principle compound in this work. Isosteric iodine substitution in CLR1404 creates a molecular imaging agent when labeled with I-124 or a targeted radiotherapeutic agent when labeled with I-125 or I-131. PET/CTmore » images of high grade glioma patients were acquired at 4.5, 24, and 48 hours post injection of 124I-CLR1404. The therapeutic 131I-CLR1404 and 125ICLR1404 absorbed dose (AD) and biological effective dose (BED) were calculated for each patient using a patient-specific Monte Carlo dosimetry platform. The optimal ratio of injection activities for each radionuclide was calculated with a multi-objective optimization algorithm using the weighted sum method. Objective functions such as the tumor dose heterogeneity and the ratio of the normal tissue to tumor doses were minimized and the relative importance weights of each optimization function were varied. Results: For each optimization function, the program outputs a Pareto surface map representing all possible combinations of radionuclide injection activities so that values that minimize the objective function can be visualized. A Pareto surface map of the weighted sum given a set of user-specified importance weights is also displayed. Additionally, the ratio of optimal injection activities as a function of the all possible importance weights is generated so that the user can select the optimal ratio based on the desired weights. Conclusion: Multi-objective optimization of radionuclide injection activities can provide an invaluable tool for maximizing the dosimetric benefits in multi-radionuclide combination TRT. BT, JG, and JW are affiliated with Cellectar Biosciences which owns the licensing rights to CLR1404 and related compounds.« less
  • Purpose: A major concern in proton therapy is the production of secondary neutrons causing secondary cancers, especially in young adults and children. Most utilized Monte Carlo codes in proton therapy are Geant4 and MCNP. However, the default versions of Geant4 and MCNP6 do not have suitable cross sections or physical models to properly handle secondary particle production in proton energy ranges used for therapy. In this study, default versions of Geant4 and MCNP6 were modified to better handle production of secondaries by adding the TENDL-2012 cross-section library. Methods: In-water proton depth-dose was measured at the “The Svedberg Laboratory” in Uppsalamore » (Sweden). The proton beam was mono-energetic with mean energy of 178.25±0.2 MeV. The measurement set-up was simulated by Geant4 version 10.00 (default and modified version) and MCNP6. Proton depth-dose, primary and secondary particle fluence and neutron equivalent dose were calculated. In case of Geant4, the secondary particle fluence was filtered by all the physics processes to identify the main process responsible for the difference between the default and modified version. Results: The proton depth-dose curves and primary proton fluence show a good agreement between both Geant4 versions and MCNP6. With respect to the modified version, default Geant4 underestimates the production of secondary neutrons while overestimates that of gammas. The “ProtonInElastic” process was identified as the main responsible process for the difference between the two versions. MCNP6 shows higher neutron production and lower gamma production than both Geant4 versions. Conclusion: Despite the good agreement on the proton depth dose curve and primary proton fluence, there is a significant discrepancy on secondary neutron production between MCNP6 and both versions of Geant4. Further studies are thus in order to find the possible cause of this discrepancy or more accurate cross-sections/models to handle the nuclear interactions of protons with energy ranges used for therapy. NSERC-CRSNG’ CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network compute calcul CANADA; McGill University health center research institute the fast foundation; LM acknowledges partial support by the CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network grant of the Natural Sciences and Engineering; Research Council Grant number 432290.« less