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Title: A 3D MR-acquisition scheme for nonrigid bulk motion correction in simultaneous PET-MR

Abstract

Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive medical imaging technique commonly used to detect and assess tumor lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high resolution anatomical images with different contrasts and a range of additional information important for cancer diagnosis. Recently, simultaneous PET-MR systems have been released with the promise to provide complementary information from both modalities in a single examination. Due to long scan times, subject nonrigid bulk motion, i.e., changes of the patient's position on the scanner table leading to nonrigid changes of the patient's anatomy, during data acquisition can negatively impair image quality and tracer uptake quantification. A 3D MR-acquisition scheme is proposed to detect and correct for nonrigid bulk motion in simultaneously acquired PET-MR data. Methods: A respiratory navigated three dimensional (3D) MR-acquisition with Radial Phase Encoding (RPE) is used to obtain T1- and T2-weighted data with an isotropic resolution of 1.5 mm. Healthy volunteers are asked to move the abdomen two to three times during data acquisition resulting in overall 19 movements at arbitrary time points. The acquisition scheme is used to retrospectively reconstruct dynamic 3D MR images with different temporal resolutions. Nonrigid bulk motion is detected and corrected in this image data.more » A simultaneous PET acquisition is simulated and the effect of motion correction is assessed on image quality and standardized uptake values (SUV) for lesions with different diameters. Results: Six respiratory gated 3D data sets with T1- and T2-weighted contrast have been obtained in healthy volunteers. All bulk motion shifts have successfully been detected and motion fields describing the transformation between the different motion states could be obtained with an accuracy of 1.71 ± 0.29 mm. The PET simulation showed errors of up to 67% in measured SUV due to bulk motion which could be reduced to less than 10% with the proposed motion compensation approach. Conclusions: A MR acquisition scheme which yields both high resolution 3D anatomical data and highly accurate nonrigid motion information without an increase in scan time is presented. The proposed method leads to a strong improvement in both MR and PET image quality and ensures an accurate assessment of tracer uptake.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)
  2. Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London SE1 7EH, United Kingdom and Division of Medical Physics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22409586
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2014 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ABDOMEN; ACCURACY; ANATOMY; DATA ACQUISITION; DIAGNOSIS; NEOPLASMS; NMR IMAGING; PATIENTS; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; UPTAKE

Citation Formats

Kolbitsch, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.1.kolbitsch@kcl.ac.uk, Prieto, Claudia, Schaeffter, Tobias, and Tsoumpas, Charalampos. A 3D MR-acquisition scheme for nonrigid bulk motion correction in simultaneous PET-MR. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4890095.
Kolbitsch, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.1.kolbitsch@kcl.ac.uk, Prieto, Claudia, Schaeffter, Tobias, & Tsoumpas, Charalampos. A 3D MR-acquisition scheme for nonrigid bulk motion correction in simultaneous PET-MR. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4890095.
Kolbitsch, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.1.kolbitsch@kcl.ac.uk, Prieto, Claudia, Schaeffter, Tobias, and Tsoumpas, Charalampos. 2014. "A 3D MR-acquisition scheme for nonrigid bulk motion correction in simultaneous PET-MR". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4890095.
@article{osti_22409586,
title = {A 3D MR-acquisition scheme for nonrigid bulk motion correction in simultaneous PET-MR},
author = {Kolbitsch, Christoph, E-mail: christoph.1.kolbitsch@kcl.ac.uk and Prieto, Claudia and Schaeffter, Tobias and Tsoumpas, Charalampos},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a highly sensitive medical imaging technique commonly used to detect and assess tumor lesions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides high resolution anatomical images with different contrasts and a range of additional information important for cancer diagnosis. Recently, simultaneous PET-MR systems have been released with the promise to provide complementary information from both modalities in a single examination. Due to long scan times, subject nonrigid bulk motion, i.e., changes of the patient's position on the scanner table leading to nonrigid changes of the patient's anatomy, during data acquisition can negatively impair image quality and tracer uptake quantification. A 3D MR-acquisition scheme is proposed to detect and correct for nonrigid bulk motion in simultaneously acquired PET-MR data. Methods: A respiratory navigated three dimensional (3D) MR-acquisition with Radial Phase Encoding (RPE) is used to obtain T1- and T2-weighted data with an isotropic resolution of 1.5 mm. Healthy volunteers are asked to move the abdomen two to three times during data acquisition resulting in overall 19 movements at arbitrary time points. The acquisition scheme is used to retrospectively reconstruct dynamic 3D MR images with different temporal resolutions. Nonrigid bulk motion is detected and corrected in this image data. A simultaneous PET acquisition is simulated and the effect of motion correction is assessed on image quality and standardized uptake values (SUV) for lesions with different diameters. Results: Six respiratory gated 3D data sets with T1- and T2-weighted contrast have been obtained in healthy volunteers. All bulk motion shifts have successfully been detected and motion fields describing the transformation between the different motion states could be obtained with an accuracy of 1.71 ± 0.29 mm. The PET simulation showed errors of up to 67% in measured SUV due to bulk motion which could be reduced to less than 10% with the proposed motion compensation approach. Conclusions: A MR acquisition scheme which yields both high resolution 3D anatomical data and highly accurate nonrigid motion information without an increase in scan time is presented. The proposed method leads to a strong improvement in both MR and PET image quality and ensures an accurate assessment of tracer uptake.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4890095},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 8,
volume = 41,
place = {United States},
year = 2014,
month = 8
}
  • Purpose: Degradation of image quality caused by cardiac and respiratory motions hampers the diagnostic quality of cardiac PET. It has been shown that improved diagnostic accuracy of myocardial defect can be achieved by tagged MR (tMR) based PET motion correction using simultaneous PET-MR. However, one major hurdle for the adoption of tMR-based PET motion correction in the PET-MR routine is the long acquisition time needed for the collection of fully sampled tMR data. In this work, the authors propose an accelerated tMR acquisition strategy using parallel imaging and/or compressed sensing and assess the impact on the tMR-based motion corrected PETmore » using phantom and patient data. Methods: Fully sampled tMR data were acquired simultaneously with PET list-mode data on two simultaneous PET-MR scanners for a cardiac phantom and a patient. Parallel imaging and compressed sensing were retrospectively performed by GRAPPA and kt-FOCUSS algorithms with various acceleration factors. Motion fields were estimated using nonrigid B-spline image registration from both the accelerated and fully sampled tMR images. The motion fields were incorporated into a motion corrected ordered subset expectation maximization reconstruction algorithm with motion-dependent attenuation correction. Results: Although tMR acceleration introduced image artifacts into the tMR images for both phantom and patient data, motion corrected PET images yielded similar image quality as those obtained using the fully sampled tMR images for low to moderate acceleration factors (<4). Quantitative analysis of myocardial defect contrast over ten independent noise realizations showed similar results. It was further observed that although the image quality of the motion corrected PET images deteriorates for high acceleration factors, the images were still superior to the images reconstructed without motion correction. Conclusions: Accelerated tMR images obtained with more than 4 times acceleration can still provide relatively accurate motion fields and yield tMR-based motion corrected PET images with similar image quality as those reconstructed using fully sampled tMR data. The reduction of tMR acquisition time makes it more compatible with routine clinical cardiac PET-MR studies.« less
  • Purpose: X-ray computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the modality of choice to noninvasively monitor and diagnose heart disease with coronary artery health and stenosis detection being of particular interest. Reliable, clinically relevant coronary artery imaging mandates high spatiotemporal resolution. However, advances in intrinsic scanner spatial resolution (CT scanners are available which combine nearly 900 detector columns with focal spot oversampling) can be tempered by motion blurring, particularly in patients with unstable heartbeats. As a result, recently numerous methods have been devised to improve coronary CTA imaging. Solutions involving hardware, multisector algorithms, or {beta}-blockers are limited by cost, oversimplifying assumptions aboutmore » cardiac motion, and populations showing contraindications to drugs, respectively. This work introduces an inexpensive algorithmic solution that retrospectively improves the temporal resolution of coronary CTA without significantly affecting spatial resolution. Methods: Given the goal of ruling out coronary stenosis, the method focuses on 'deblurring' the coronary arteries. The approach makes no assumptions about cardiac motion, can be used on exams acquired at high heart rates (even over 75 beats/min), and draws on a fast and accurate three-dimensional (3D) nonrigid bidirectional labeled point matching approach to estimate the trajectories of the coronary arteries during image acquisition. Motion compensation is achieved by employing a 3D warping of a series of partial reconstructions based on the estimated motion fields. Each of these partial reconstructions is created from data acquired over a short time interval. For brevity, the algorithm 'Subphasic Warp and Add' (SWA) reconstruction. Results: The performance of the new motion estimation-compensation approach was evaluated by a systematic observer study conducted using nine human cardiac CTA exams acquired over a range of average heart rates between 68 and 86 beats/min. Algorithm performance was based-lined against exams reconstructed using standard filtered-backprojection (FBP). The study was performed by three experienced reviewers using the American Heart Association's 15-segment model. All vessel segments were evaluated to quantify their viability to allow a clinical diagnosis before and after motion estimation-compensation using SWA. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first such observer study to show that an image processing-based software approach can improve the clinical diagnostic value of CTA for coronary artery evaluation. Conclusions: Results from the observer study show that the SWA method described here can dramatically reduce coronary artery motion and preserve real pathology, without affecting spatial resolution. In particular, the method successfully mitigated motion artifacts in 75% of all initially nondiagnostic coronary artery segments, and in over 45% of the cases this improvement was enough to make a previously nondiagnostic vessel segment clinically diagnostic.« less
  • Purpose: In conventional 4D-PET, images from different frames are reconstructed individually and aligned by registration methods. Two issues with these approaches are: 1) Reconstruction algorithms do not make full use of all projections statistics; and 2) Image registration between noisy images can Result in poor alignment. In this study we investigated the use of simultaneous motion estimation and image reconstruction (SMEIR) method for cone beam CT for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. Methods: Modified ordered-subset expectation maximization algorithm coupled with total variation minimization (OSEM- TV) is used to obtain a primary motion-compensated PET (pmc-PET) from all projection data using Demons derivedmore » deformation vector fields (DVFs) as initial. Motion model update is done to obtain an optimal set of DVFs between the pmc-PET and other phases by matching the forward projection of the deformed pmc-PET and measured projections of other phases. Using updated DVFs, OSEM- TV image reconstruction is repeated and new DVFs are estimated based on updated images. 4D XCAT phantom with typical FDG biodistribution and a 10mm diameter tumor was used to evaluate the performance of the SMEIR algorithm. Results: Image quality of 4D-PET is greatly improved by the SMEIR algorithm. When all projections are used to reconstruct a 3D-PET, motion blurring artifacts are present, leading to a more than 5 times overestimation of the tumor size and 54% tumor to lung contrast ratio underestimation. This error reduced to 37% and 20% for post reconstruction registration methods and SMEIR respectively. Conclusion: SMEIR method can be used for motion estimation/correction in 4D-PET. The statistics is greatly improved since all projection data are combined together to update the image. The performance of the SMEIR algorithm for 4D-PET is sensitive to smoothness control parameters in the DVF estimation step.« less
  • Purpose: To further reduce CT dose, a practical sparse-view acquisition scheme is proposed to provide the same attenuation estimation as higher dose for PET imaging in the extended scan field-of-view. Methods: CT scans are often used for PET attenuation correction and can be acquired at very low CT radiation dose. Low dose techniques often employ low tube voltage/current accompanied with a smooth filter before backprojection to reduce CT image noise. These techniques can introduce bias in the conversion from HU to attenuation values, especially in the extended CT scan field-of-view (FOV). In this work, we propose an ultra-low dose CTmore » technique for PET attenuation correction based on sparse-view acquisition. That is, instead of an acquisition of full amount of views, only a fraction of views are acquired. We tested this technique on a 64-slice GE CT scanner using multiple phantoms. CT scan FOV truncation completion was performed based on the published water-cylinder extrapolation algorithm. A number of continuous views per rotation: 984 (full), 246, 123, 82 and 62 have been tested, corresponding to a CT dose reduction of none, 4x, 8x, 12x and 16x. We also simulated sparse-view acquisition by skipping views from the fully-acquired view data. Results: FBP reconstruction with Q. AC filter on reduced views in the full extended scan field-of-view possesses similar image quality to the reconstruction on acquired full view data. The results showed a further potential for dose reduction compared to the full acquisition, without sacrificing any significant attenuation support to the PET. Conclusion: With the proposed sparse-view method, one can potential achieve at least 2x more CT dose reduction compared to the current Ultra-Low Dose (ULD) PET/CT protocol. A pre-scan based dose modulation scheme can be combined with the above sparse-view approaches, which can even further reduce the CT scan dose during a PET/CT exam.« less
  • Purpose: X-ray scatter incurred to detectors degrades the quality of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and represents a problem in volumetric image guided and adaptive radiation therapy. Several methods using a beam blocker for the estimation and subtraction of scatter have been proposed. However, due to missing information resulting from the obstruction of the blocker, such methods require dual scanning or dynamically moving blocker to obtain a complete volumetric image. Here, we propose a half beam blocker-based approach, in conjunction with a total variation (TV) regularized Feldkamp-Davis-Kress (FDK) algorithm, to correct scatter-induced artifacts by simultaneously acquiring image and scatter information frommore » a single-rotation CBCT scan. Methods: A half beam blocker, comprising lead strips, is used to simultaneously acquire image data on one side of the projection data and scatter data on the other half side. One-dimensional cubic B-Spline interpolation/extrapolation is applied to derive patient specific scatter information by using the scatter distributions on strips. The estimated scatter is subtracted from the projection image acquired at the opposite view. With scatter-corrected projections where this subtraction is completed, the FDK algorithm based on a cosine weighting function is performed to reconstruct CBCT volume. To suppress the noise in the reconstructed CBCT images produced by geometric errors between two opposed projections and interpolated scatter information, total variation regularization is applied by a minimization using a steepest gradient descent optimization method. The experimental studies using Catphan504 and anthropomorphic phantoms were carried out to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. Results: The scatter-induced shading artifacts were markedly suppressed in CBCT using the proposed scheme. Compared with CBCT without a blocker, the nonuniformity value was reduced from 39.3% to 3.1%. The root mean square error relative to values inside the regions of interest selected from a benchmark scatter free image was reduced from 50 to 11.3. The TV regularization also led to a better contrast-to-noise ratio. Conclusions: An asymmetric half beam blocker-based FDK acquisition and reconstruction technique has been established. The proposed scheme enables simultaneous detection of patient specific scatter and complete volumetric CBCT reconstruction without additional requirements such as prior images, dual scans, or moving strips.« less