skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia

Abstract

In Malaysia, thorium exists in minerals and rare earth elements production residue. The average range of thorium content in Malaysian monazite and xenotime minerals was found about 70,000 and 15,000 ppm respectively. About 2,636 tonnes of Malaysian monazite was produced for a period of 5 years (2006-2010) and based on the above data, it can be estimated that Malaysian monazite contains about 184.5 tonnes of thorium. Although thorium can become a major radiological problem to our environment, but with the significant deposit of thorium in Malaysian monazite, it has a prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. This paper will discuss the thorium issues in Malaysia especially its long term radiological risks to public health and environment at storage and disposal stages, the prospect of exploring and producing high purity thorium from our rare earth elements minerals for future thorium based reactor. This paper also highlights the holistic approach in thorium recovery from Malaysian rare earth element production residue to reduce its radioactivity and extraction of thorium and rare earth elements from the minerals with minimum radiological impact to health and environment.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Nuclear Science Programme, School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Malaysia. walareqi@yahoo.com (Malaysia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22391633
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1659; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: NuSTEC2014: Nuclear Science, Technology, and Engineering Conference 2014, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia), 11-13 Nov 2014; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ALTERNATIVE FUELS; EXTRACTION; MALAYSIA; MONAZITES; NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY; NUCLEAR FUELS; RARE EARTHS; RESIDUES; THORIUM; THORIUM 232; THORIUM CYCLE; XENOTIME

Citation Formats

AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M., Majid, Amran Ab., Sarmani, Sukiman, and Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4916865.
AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M., Majid, Amran Ab., Sarmani, Sukiman, & Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul. Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4916865.
AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M., Majid, Amran Ab., Sarmani, Sukiman, and Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul. Wed . "Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4916865.
@article{osti_22391633,
title = {Thorium: Issues and prospects in Malaysia},
author = {AL-Areqi, Wadeeah M. and Majid, Amran Ab. and Sarmani, Sukiman and Bahri, Che Nor Aniza Che Zainul},
abstractNote = {In Malaysia, thorium exists in minerals and rare earth elements production residue. The average range of thorium content in Malaysian monazite and xenotime minerals was found about 70,000 and 15,000 ppm respectively. About 2,636 tonnes of Malaysian monazite was produced for a period of 5 years (2006-2010) and based on the above data, it can be estimated that Malaysian monazite contains about 184.5 tonnes of thorium. Although thorium can become a major radiological problem to our environment, but with the significant deposit of thorium in Malaysian monazite, it has a prospect as a future alternative fuel in nuclear technology. This paper will discuss the thorium issues in Malaysia especially its long term radiological risks to public health and environment at storage and disposal stages, the prospect of exploring and producing high purity thorium from our rare earth elements minerals for future thorium based reactor. This paper also highlights the holistic approach in thorium recovery from Malaysian rare earth element production residue to reduce its radioactivity and extraction of thorium and rare earth elements from the minerals with minimum radiological impact to health and environment.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4916865},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1659,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 29 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Wed Apr 29 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}
  • The capability of a power plant to operate at a wide range of output power is essential for initial commissioning and normal maintenance. Critical physics issues related to operating a tokamak fusion reactor at fractions of its rated power are explored, and methods for power control are identified. Analysis is carried out with a steady-state, profile-dependent, zero-dimensional power balance model of the plasma, in which several empirical transport scalings appropriate to tokamaks are used. It is found that reactor operation depends strongly on the confinement model, the plasma beta limit, and the effect of alpha power on transport. Parametric calculationsmore » indicate that density, auxiliary heating power, and an effective external confinement control mechanism are the key control elements, and burn control is required in most cases. Transition between power plateaus is facilitated by operating in the hybrid transformer mode. In general, the impact of fractional power operation on full-power reactor designs appears to be small.« less
  • Energy conservation can be approached by a variety of means grouped under those associated with varying reliance on market forces and those with reliance on public interventionist policies. The latter would not be as disruptive of lifestyle, but would impose standards and government policies for efficiency in construction materials, transportation, and other areas--and would emphasize prudent resource management rather than lower prices. Information and demonstration projects can do more to foster public acceptance of conservation than economic pressures of higher taxes and prices. The feasibility of energy savings through reduced growth rates and energy demand needs to be measured andmore » presented to the public in a way that will modify the public values of consumerism nurtured in the past. The public, for example, could decide to spend a larger proportion of income on energy demand and give up some other spending if conservation is presented solely in economic terms. Energy demand can be put in economic terms for environmental damage to air, water, and land, but restraints to override market terms are needed for subjective valuations such as self-indulgence. Energy accounting to emphasize the concept of net energy is helpful, but could lead to an unnecessarily heavy burden of impact statements. (DCK)« less
  • Technological, economic, environmental, and institutional issues relating to the development of a commercial oil shale industry are reviewed. It is concluded that a commercial shale oil industry is feasible from a resource and technology perspective. Although there are unanswered questions about water supplies and the environmental impact of a developing shale oil industry, the chief uncertainty is economic. The outlook for prompt and sizable production of shale oil is uncertain in the absence of Federal intervention. 47 references. (JGB)
  • Fast ignition (FI) is a novel approach to inertial confinement fusion, which has the potential for higher energy gain at lower overall driver energy and cost. This paper is a brief review of basic FI concepts and issues, with a particular emphasis on FI with laser-generated proton beams. General requirements for the DT fuel and the ignitor (particle beam) as well as for the laser drivers are discussed. Key issues related to proton FI are considered and selected results of experimental and numerical studies are described. A progress in development of laser facilities for FI research and prospects for FImore » experiments are outlined.« less
  • We briefly review the current experimental and theoretical status of cosmic radiation above {approx}10{sup 17} eV, including secondary neutrinos and gamma-rays. We focus on questions related to chemical composition and sky distributions of these particles as well as on the location and nature of their sources.