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Title: Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom

Abstract

Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ{sup 2} value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ{sup 2} value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)
  2. School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)
  3. School of Industrial Technologies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22391632
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1659; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: NuSTEC2014: Nuclear Science, Technology, and Engineering Conference 2014, Skudai, Johor (Malaysia), 11-13 Nov 2014; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DENSITY; ELECTRON DENSITY; IMAGES; PHANTOMS; TANNIC ACID; WATER

Citation Formats

Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my, Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul, Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz, Bauk, Sabar, and Hashim, Rokiah. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4916864.
Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my, Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul, Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz, Bauk, Sabar, & Hashim, Rokiah. Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4916864.
Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my, Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul, Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz, Bauk, Sabar, and Hashim, Rokiah. 2015. "Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4916864.
@article{osti_22391632,
title = {Determination of CT number and density profile of binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboards using computed tomography imaging and electron density phantom},
author = {Yusof, Mohd Fahmi Mohd, E-mail: mfahmi@usm.my and Hamid, Puteri Nor Khatijah Abdul and Tajuddin, Abdul Aziz and Bauk, Sabar and Hashim, Rokiah},
abstractNote = {Plug density phantoms were constructed in accordance to CT density phantom model 062M CIRS using binderless, pre-treated and tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. particleboards. The Rhizophora Spp. plug phantoms were scanned along with the CT density phantom using Siemens Somatom Definition AS CT scanner at three CT energies of 80, 120 and 140 kVp. 15 slices of images with 1.0 mm thickness each were taken from the central axis of CT density phantom for CT number and CT density profile analysis. The values were compared to water substitute plug phantom from the CT density phantom. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest value of CT number to water substitute at 80 and 120 kVp CT energies with χ{sup 2} value of 0.011 and 0.014 respectively while the binderless Rhizphora Spp. gave the nearest CT number to water substitute at 140 kVp CT energy with χ{sup 2} value of 0.023. The tannin-based Rhizophora Spp. gave the nearest CT density profile to water substitute at all CT energies. This study indicated the suitability of Rhizophora Spp. particleboard as phantom material for the use in CT imaging studies.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4916864},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1659,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 4
}
  • The Rhizophora spp. particleboards were fabricated using ≤ 104 µm particle size at three different fabrication methods; binderless, steam pre-treated and tannin-added. The mass attenuation coefficient of Rhizophora spp. particleboards were measured using x-ray fluorescent (XRF) photon from niobium, molybdenum, palladium, silver and tin metal plates that provided photon energy between 16.59 to 25.26 keV. The results were compared to theoretical values for water calculated using photon cross-section database (XCOM).The results showed that all Rhizophora spp. particleboards having mass attenuation coefficient close to calculated XCOM for water. Tannin-added Rizophora spp. particleboard was nearest to calculated XCOM for water with χ2 valuemore » of 13.008 followed by binderless Rizophora spp. (25.859) and pre-treated Rizophora spp. (91.941)« less
  • A set of tannin-based Rhizophora spp. particleboard phantoms with dimension of 30 cm x 30 cm was fabricated at target density of 1.0 g/cm{sup 3}. The mass attenuation coefficient of the phantom was measured using {sup 60}Co gamma source. The phantoms were scanned using Computed Tomography (CT) scanner and the percentage depth dose (PDD) of the phantom was calculated using treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray and compared to that in solid water phantoms. The result showed that the mass attenuation coefficient of tannin-based Rhizohora spp. phantoms was near to the value of water with χ{sup 2} valuemore » of 1.2. The measured PDD also showed good agreement with solid water phantom at both 6 MV and 10 MV x-ray with percentage deviation below 8% at depth beyond the maximum dose, Z{sub max}.« less
  • Purpose: Adequate evaluation of the results from multi-institutional trials involving light ion beam treatments requires consideration of the planning margins applied to both targets and organs at risk. A major uncertainty that affects the size of these margins is the conversion of x ray computed tomography numbers (XCTNs) to relative linear stopping powers (RLSPs). Various facilities engaged in multi-institutional clinical trials involving proton beams have been applying significantly different margins in their patient planning. This study was performed to determine the variance in the conversion functions used at proton facilities in the U.S.A. wishing to participate in National Cancer Institutemore » sponsored clinical trials. Methods: A simplified method of determining the conversion function was developed using a standard phantom containing only water and aluminum. The new method was based on the premise that all scanners have their XCTNs for air and water calibrated daily to constant values but that the XCTNs for high density/high atomic number materials are variable with different scanning conditions. The standard phantom was taken to 10 different proton facilities and scanned with the local protocols resulting in 14 derived conversion functions which were compared to the conversion functions used at the local facilities. Results: For tissues within ±300 XCTN of water, all facility functions produced converted RLSP values within ±6% of the values produced by the standard function and within 8% of the values from any other facility's function. For XCTNs corresponding to lung tissue, converted RLSP values differed by as great as ±8% from the standard and up to 16% from the values of other facilities. For XCTNs corresponding to low-density immobilization foam, the maximum to minimum values differed by as much as 40%. Conclusions: The new method greatly simplifies determination of the conversion function, reduces ambiguity, and in the future could promote standardization between facilities. Although it was not possible from these experiments to determine which conversion function is most appropriate, the variation between facilities suggests that the margins used in some facilities to account for the uncertainty in converting XCTNs to RLSPs may be too small.« less
  • Purpose: The objective of this study is to quantify the influence of linear motion, calcification density, and temporal resolution on coronary calcium determination using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), dual source CT (DSCT), and electron beam tomography (EBT) and to find a quantitative method which corrects for the influences of these parameters using a linear moving cardiac phantom. Methods: On a robotic arm with artificial arteries with four calcifications of increasing density, a linear movement was applied between 0 and 120 mm/s (step of 10 mm/s). The phantom was scanned five times on 64-slice MDCT, DSCT, and EBT using a standardmore » acquisition protocol. The average Agatston, volume, and mass scores were determined for each velocity, calcification, and scanner. Susceptibility to motion was quantified using a cardiac motion susceptibility (CMS) index. Resemblance to EBT and physical volume and mass was quantified using a {Delta} index. Results: Increasing motion artifacts were observed at increasing velocities on all scanners, with increasing severity from EBT to DSCT to 64-slice MDCT. The calcium score showed a linear dependency on motion from which a correction factor could be derived. This correction factor showed a linear dependency on the mean calcification density with a good fit for all three scoring methods and all three scanners (0.73{<=}R{sup 2}{<=}0.95). The slope and offset of this correction factor showed a linear dependency on temporal resolution with a good fit for all three scoring methods and all three scanners (0.83{<=}R{sup 2}{<=}0.98). CMS was minimal for EBT and increasing values were observed for DSCT and highest values for 64-slice MDCT. CMS was minimal for mass score and increasing values were observed for volume score and highest values for Agatston score. For all densities and scoring methods DSCT showed on average the closest resemblance to EBT calcium scores. When using the correction factor, CMS index decreased on average by 15% and {Delta} index decreased by 35%. Conclusions: Calcium scores determined on DSCT and 64-slice MDCT are highly susceptible to motion as compared to EBT. The mass score is less susceptible to motion compared to volume and Agatston score. Calcium scores determined on DSCT bear a closer resemblance to EBT obtained calcium scores than 64-slice MDCT. In addition, the calcium score is highly dependent on the average density of individual calcifications and the dependency of the calcium score on motion showed a linear behavior on calcification density. From these relations, a quantitative method could be derived which corrects the measured calcium score for the influence of linear motion, mean calcification density, and temporal resolution.« less
  • Purpose: Evaluation of the dose distribution for lung cancer patients using a patient setup procedure based on the bony anatomy or the primary tumor. Methods and materials: For 39 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, the planning fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scan was registered to a repeated FDG-PET/CT scan made in the second week of treatment. Two patient setup methods were analyzed based on the bony anatomy or the primary tumor. The original treatment plan was copied to the repeated scan, and target and normal tissue structures were delineated. Dose distributions were analyzed using dose-volume histograms for the primarymore » tumor, lymph nodes, lungs, and spinal cord. Results: One patient showed decreased dose coverage of the primary tumor caused by progressive disease and required replanning to achieve adequate coverage. For the other patients, the minimum dose to the primary tumor did not significantly deviate from the planned dose: -0.2 {+-} 1.7% (p = 0.71) and -0.1 {+-} 1.7% (p = 0.85) for the bony anatomy setup and the primary tumor setup, respectively. For patients (n = 31) with nodal involvement, 10% showed a decrease in minimum dose larger than 5% for the bony anatomy setup and 13% for the primary tumor setup. The mean lung dose exceeded the maximum allowed 20 Gy in 21% of the patients for the bony anatomy setup and in 13% for the primary tumor setup, whereas for the spinal cord this occurred in 10% and 13% of the patients, respectively. Conclusions: In 10% and 13% of patients with nodal involvement, setup based on bony anatomy or primary tumor, respectively, led to important dose deviations in nodal target volumes. Overdosage of critical structures occurred in 10-20% of the patients. In cases of progressive disease, repeated imaging revealed underdosage of the primary tumor. Development of practical ways for setup procedures based on repeated high-quality imaging of all tumor sites during radiotherapy should therefore be an important research focus.« less