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Title: The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node

Abstract

The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board.

Authors:
 [1];
  1. IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C/Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, 46980 Paterna (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22390610
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1630; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: VLVvT 13: 6. International Workshop on Very Large Volumte Neutrino Telescopes, Stockholm (Sweden), 5-7 Aug 2013; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEMS; DATA TRANSMISSION; DATA TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS; GLASS; NEUTRINO DETECTION; PHOTOCATHODES; PHOTOMULTIPLIERS; READOUT SYSTEMS; SOLID SCINTILLATION DETECTORS; SPHERES; SYNCHRONIZATION; TELESCOPE COUNTERS

Citation Formats

Real, Diego, and Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4902782.
Real, Diego, & Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4902782.
Real, Diego, and Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration. Tue . "The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4902782.
@article{osti_22390610,
title = {The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node},
author = {Real, Diego and Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration},
abstractNote = {The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4902782},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1630,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Nov 18 00:00:00 EST 2014},
month = {Tue Nov 18 00:00:00 EST 2014}
}
  • The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres (nodes), each of them containing 31 photomultiplier (PMT) of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers. For this purpose, 31 high-resolution time-interval measuring channels are implemented on the Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based on Time to Digital Converter (TDC). TDC are very common devices in particles physics experiments. Architectures with low resourcesmore » occupancy are desirable allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The required resolution to measure both, time of flight and timestamp must be 1 ns. A 4-Oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks is used to achieve this resolution. The proposed TDC firmware is developed using very few resources in Xilinx Kintex-7.« less
  • The NA48 experiment at the CERN SPS offers a four fold improvement in statistical and systematic error over earlier measurements of the magnitude of the direct CP (Charge-Parity) violation of the neutral Kaon system. This requires maximum event readout efficiency, controlled event building and fast monitoring of run time errors. The event data flow in particular must be sustained at 100 Mbyte/s. The Data Merger Readout Controller presented in this paper offers this facility at minimal production cost.
  • The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main motivation of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. To this end, several time calibration subsystems have been developed. In this article, the proposal ofmore » a last generation Laser Beacon, to be used in KM3NeT and developed to measure and monitor the relative time offsets between photomultipliers, is presented.« less
  • The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of a matrix of pressure resistant glass spheres holding each one a set (31) of small area photomultipliers. The main goal of the telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos through the Cherenkov light induced in sea water by charged particles produced in neutrino interactions with the surrounding medium. A relative time calibration between photomultipliers of the order of 1 ns is required to achieve an optimal performance. Due to the high volume to be covered by KM3NeT, a cost reduction of themore » different systems is a priority. To this end a very low price calibration device, the so called Nanobeacon, has been designed and developed. At present one of such devices has already been integrated successfully at the KM3NeT telescope and eight of them in the Nemo Tower Phase II. In this article the main properties and operation of this device are described.« less
  • The KM3NeT Consortium is currently carrying on a research and development activity to build a cubic kilometerscale neutrino telescope in the deep Mediterranean Sea. The KM3NeT Consortium follows on from the NEMO and NESTOR pilot projects, which have produced several prototypes and the ANTARES collaboration, which has built and is operating a 0.1 cubic kilometer volume deep-sea neutrino telescope. The KM3NeT Mediterranean neutrino telescope will complement the Antarctic Icecube observatory, allowing the complete survey of the sky using neutrinos as a probe. The main physics goals of KM3NeT include the detection of neutrinos from astrophysical sources such as active galacticmore » nuclei, supernova remnants and γ-ray bursts as well as the search for new physics, such as neutrino signals from neutralino annihilation. To achieve the best performance, an extensive optimisation process is underway, looking for the best geometrical configuration of the detector for maximum sensitivity, and evaluating the most reliable technical solutions to allow long-term, low-maintenance operations.« less