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Title: Discharge formation systems for generating atomic iodine in a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser

Abstract

Generation characteristics of a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser with the electro-discharge production of atomic iodine were compared with inductively stabilised edged or anisotropic- resistive cathodes used for ignition of the volume discharge. The discharge was initiated by the radiation of a barrier discharge from the side of a grid anode. It was found that at equal specific electrical energy depositions to the gas-discharge plasma, the system with the anisotropic-resistive cathode provides a more stable and uniform volume discharge with the possibility of varying the composition and pressure of working mixtures over a wide range and a greater specific extraction of laser energy is observed (up to 2.4 J L{sup -1}). At a high pulse repetition rate of laser pulses (50 – 100 Hz) and long duration of the pulse trains (longer than a minute) the surface of anisotropic-resistive cathode became eroded. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)
  2. Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22373629
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Quantum Electronics (Woodbury, N.Y.); Journal Volume: 44; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ANISOTROPY; CATHODES; ENERGY ABSORPTION; IGNITION; IODINE; IODINE LASERS; OXYGEN; PLASMA; PULSES; QUANTUM ELECTRONICS

Citation Formats

Aksinin, V I, Kazantsev, S Yu, Kononov, I G, Podlesnykh, S V, Firsov, K N, Antsiferov, S A, Velikanov, S D, Gerasimov, A Yu, Gostev, I V, Kalinovskii, V V, Konovalov, V V, Mikhalkin, V N, and Sevryugin, I V. Discharge formation systems for generating atomic iodine in a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1070/QE2014V044N01ABEH015267.
Aksinin, V I, Kazantsev, S Yu, Kononov, I G, Podlesnykh, S V, Firsov, K N, Antsiferov, S A, Velikanov, S D, Gerasimov, A Yu, Gostev, I V, Kalinovskii, V V, Konovalov, V V, Mikhalkin, V N, & Sevryugin, I V. Discharge formation systems for generating atomic iodine in a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser. United States. doi:10.1070/QE2014V044N01ABEH015267.
Aksinin, V I, Kazantsev, S Yu, Kononov, I G, Podlesnykh, S V, Firsov, K N, Antsiferov, S A, Velikanov, S D, Gerasimov, A Yu, Gostev, I V, Kalinovskii, V V, Konovalov, V V, Mikhalkin, V N, and Sevryugin, I V. Fri . "Discharge formation systems for generating atomic iodine in a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser". United States. doi:10.1070/QE2014V044N01ABEH015267.
@article{osti_22373629,
title = {Discharge formation systems for generating atomic iodine in a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser},
author = {Aksinin, V I and Kazantsev, S Yu and Kononov, I G and Podlesnykh, S V and Firsov, K N and Antsiferov, S A and Velikanov, S D and Gerasimov, A Yu and Gostev, I V and Kalinovskii, V V and Konovalov, V V and Mikhalkin, V N and Sevryugin, I V},
abstractNote = {Generation characteristics of a pulse-periodic oxygen–iodine laser with the electro-discharge production of atomic iodine were compared with inductively stabilised edged or anisotropic- resistive cathodes used for ignition of the volume discharge. The discharge was initiated by the radiation of a barrier discharge from the side of a grid anode. It was found that at equal specific electrical energy depositions to the gas-discharge plasma, the system with the anisotropic-resistive cathode provides a more stable and uniform volume discharge with the possibility of varying the composition and pressure of working mixtures over a wide range and a greater specific extraction of laser energy is observed (up to 2.4 J L{sup -1}). At a high pulse repetition rate of laser pulses (50 – 100 Hz) and long duration of the pulse trains (longer than a minute) the surface of anisotropic-resistive cathode became eroded. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)},
doi = {10.1070/QE2014V044N01ABEH015267},
journal = {Quantum Electronics (Woodbury, N.Y.)},
number = 1,
volume = 44,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 31 00:00:00 EST 2014},
month = {Fri Jan 31 00:00:00 EST 2014}
}
  • Possibilities for increasing the active medium volume of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser (CCOIL) with a pulsed electric-discharge generation of atomic iodine are studied. The reasons are analysed of the low stability of the transverse self-sustained volume discharge in electrode systems with metal cathodes under the conditions of the electric energy input into gas-discharge plasma that are typical for CCOILs: low pressure of mixtures containing a strongly electronegative component, low voltage of discharge burning, low specific energy depositions, and long duration of the current pulse. An efficient electrode system is elaborated with the cathode based on an anisotropically-resistive material,more » which resulted in a stable discharge in the mixtures of iodide (CH{sub 3}I, n-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}I, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}I) with oxygen and nitrogen at the specific energy depositions of {approx}5 J L{sup -1}, pressures of 10 - 25 Torr, and mixture volume of 2.5 L. (lasers)« less
  • A new technique is proposed for the production of atomic iodine for a cw oxygen-iodine laser with the use of reactions between iodine donor molecules and oxygen atoms. The CH{sub 3}I, CF{sub 3}I, or I{sub 2} molecules can be used as donors. Oxygen atoms are injected into the reaction region by admixing the flow of partially dissociated oxygen produced in an electric discharge. The use of atomic iodine instead of molecular iodine excludes the consumption of singlet oxygen O{sub 2}({sup 1{Delta}}) for the dissociation of I{sub 2} and quenching of I* by the I{sub 2} molecules. The latter will supposedlymore » allow raising the optimal density of I and accordingly the gain coefficient. Estimates were made of the required degree of dissociation of oxygen employed to obtain iodine atoms at which the above advantages can be realised. (lasers)« less
  • The existing kinetic model describing self-sustained and electroionization discharges in mixtures enriched with singlet oxygen has been modified to calculate the characteristics of a flow RF discharge in molecular oxygen and its mixtures with helium. The simulations were performed in the gas plug-flow approximation, i.e., the evolution of the plasma components during their motion along the channel was represented as their evolution in time. The calculations were carried out for the O{sub 2}: He = 1: 0, 1: 1, 1: 2, and 1: 3 mixtures at an oxygen partial pressure of 7.5 Torr. It is shown that, under these conditions,more » volumetric gas heating in a discharge in pure molecular oxygen prevails over gas cooling via heat conduction even at an electrode temperature as low as ~100 K. When molecular oxygen is diluted with helium, the behavior of the gas temperature changes substantially: heat removal begins to prevail over volumetric gas heating, and the gas temperature at the outlet of the discharge zone drops to ~220–230 K at room gas temperature at the inlet, which is very important in the context of achieving the generation threshold in an electric-discharge oxygen−iodine laser based on a slab cryogenic RF discharge.« less
  • A volume self-sustained discharge (VSD) in iodides (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}I, C{sub 4}H{sub 9}I) and in their mixtures with SF{sub 6}, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} in the presence of small-scale inhomogeneities on the cathode surface is shown to develop in the form of a self-initiating volume discharge (SIVD), i.e., a volume discharge without any preionisation including discharge gaps with a strong edge enhancement of the electric field. Additions of SF{sub 6} or N{sub 2} to the iodides improves the stability and homogeneity of the SIVD, while adding up to 300 % (relative to the partial iodide pressure) of O{sub 2}more » to these mixtures has only an insignificant effect on the discharge stability. The possibility of SIVD initiation was modelled experimentally in a 1.5-L discharge volume. For the C{sub 4}H{sub 9}I:O{sub 2}:SF{sub 6}=0.083:0.25:0.67 mixture at a pressure of 72 Torr, the specific energy input into the discharge plasma ranged up to 130 J L{sup -1} in this geometry. A conclusion was drawn that the SIVD is promising for the production of atomic iodine in the pulsed and repetitively pulsed operating regimes of a chemical oxygen - iodine laser. (lasers)« less
  • Laser-induced fluorescence is used for measuring the concentration of iodine molecules at the output of an electric-discharge generator of atomic iodine. Methyl iodide CH{sub 3}I is used as the donor of atomic iodine. The fraction of iodine extracted from CH{sub 3}I in the generator is {approx}50%. The optimal operation regimes are found in which 80%-90% of iodine contained in the output flow of the generator was in the atomic state. This fraction decreased during the iodine transport due to recombination and was 20%-30% at the place where iodine was injected into the oxygen flow. The fraction of the discharge powermore » spent for dissociation was {approx}3%. (elements of laser setups)« less