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Title: MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE POWERED BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN NASCENT PROTONEUTRON STARS

Abstract

Magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a convectively stable layer around the neutrinosphere is simulated by a three-dimensional model of a supernova core. To resolve MRI-unstable modes, a thin layer approximation considering only the radial global stratification is adopted. Our intriguing finding is that the convectively stable layer around the neutrinosphere becomes fully turbulent due to the MRI and its nonlinear penetration into the strongly stratified MRI-stable region. The intensity of the MRI-driven turbulence increases with magnetic flux threading the core, but is limited by the free energy stored in the differential rotation. The turbulent neutrinosphere is a natural consequence of rotating core-collapse and could exert a positive impact on the supernova mechanism.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Computational Science, Kobe University, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)
  2. Division of Theoretical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)
  3. Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Physics, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka 814-0180 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22364712
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 798; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; APPROXIMATIONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COSMIC NEUTRINOS; FREE ENERGY; LAYERS; MAGNETIC FLUX; MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS; NONLINEAR PROBLEMS; ROTATION; STAR MODELS; STRATIFICATION; SUPERNOVAE; THIN FILMS; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; TURBULENCE

Citation Formats

Masada, Youhei, Takiwaki, Tomoya, and Kotake, Kei, E-mail: ymasada@harbor.kobe-u.ac.jp. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE POWERED BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN NASCENT PROTONEUTRON STARS. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/798/1/L22.
Masada, Youhei, Takiwaki, Tomoya, & Kotake, Kei, E-mail: ymasada@harbor.kobe-u.ac.jp. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE POWERED BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN NASCENT PROTONEUTRON STARS. United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/798/1/L22.
Masada, Youhei, Takiwaki, Tomoya, and Kotake, Kei, E-mail: ymasada@harbor.kobe-u.ac.jp. 2015. "MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE POWERED BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN NASCENT PROTONEUTRON STARS". United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/798/1/L22.
@article{osti_22364712,
title = {MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE POWERED BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN NASCENT PROTONEUTRON STARS},
author = {Masada, Youhei and Takiwaki, Tomoya and Kotake, Kei, E-mail: ymasada@harbor.kobe-u.ac.jp},
abstractNote = {Magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a convectively stable layer around the neutrinosphere is simulated by a three-dimensional model of a supernova core. To resolve MRI-unstable modes, a thin layer approximation considering only the radial global stratification is adopted. Our intriguing finding is that the convectively stable layer around the neutrinosphere becomes fully turbulent due to the MRI and its nonlinear penetration into the strongly stratified MRI-stable region. The intensity of the MRI-driven turbulence increases with magnetic flux threading the core, but is limited by the free energy stored in the differential rotation. The turbulent neutrinosphere is a natural consequence of rotating core-collapse and could exert a positive impact on the supernova mechanism.},
doi = {10.1088/2041-8205/798/1/L22},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 798,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 1
}
  • In this paper, we consider two outstanding intertwined problems in modern high-energy astrophysics: (1) the vertical-thermal structure of an optically thick accretion disk heated by the dissipation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and (2) determining the fraction of the accretion power released in the corona above the disk. For simplicity, we consider a gas-pressure-dominated disk and assume a constant opacity. We argue that the local turbulent dissipation rate due to the disruption of the MRI channel flows by secondary parasitic instabilities should be uniform across most of the disk, almost up to the disk photosphere. Wemore » then obtain a self-consistent analytical solution for the vertical thermal structure of the disk, governed by the balance between the heating by MRI turbulence and the cooling by radiative diffusion. Next, we argue that the coronal power fraction is determined by the competition between the Parker instability, viewed as a parasitic instability feeding off of MRI channel flows, and other parasitic instabilities. We show that the Parker instability inevitably becomes important near the disk surface, leading to a certain lower limit on the coronal power. While most of the analysis in this paper focuses on the case of a disk threaded by an externally imposed vertical magnetic field, we also discuss the zero net flux case, in which the magnetic field is produced by the MRI dynamo itself, and show that most of our arguments and conclusions should be valid in this case as well.« less
  • Stability analyses for equilibria of the compressible reduced magnetohydrodynamics (CRMHD) model are carried out by means of the Energy-Casimir (EC) method. Stability results are compared with those obtained for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) from the classical {delta}W criterion. An identification of the terms in the second variation of the free energy functional for CRMHD with those of {delta}W is made: two destabilizing effects present for CRMHD turn out to correspond to the kink and interchange instabilities in usual MHD, while the stabilizing roles of field line bending and compressibility are also identified in the reduced model. Also, using the EC method,more » stability conditions in the presence of toroidal flow are obtained. A formal analogy between CRMHD and a reduced incompressible model for magnetized rotating disks, due to Julien and Knobloch [EAS Pub. Series, 21, 81 (2006)], is discovered. In light of this analogy, energy stability analysis shows that the condition for magnetorotational instability (MRI) for the latter model corresponds to the condition for interchange instability in CRMHD, with the Coriolis term and shear velocity playing the roles of the curvature term and pressure gradient, respectively. Using the EC method, stability conditions for the rotating disk model, for a large class of equilibria with possible non-uniform magnetic fields, are obtained. In particular, this shows it is possible for the MRI system to undergo, in addition to the MRI, another instability that is analogous to the kink instability. For vanishing magnetic field, the Rayleigh hydrodynamical stability condition is recovered.« less
  • Here, we study the dynamo generation (exponential growth) of large-scale (planar averaged) fields in unstratified shearing box simulations of the magnetorotational instability (MRI). In contrast to previous studies restricted to horizontal (x–y) averaging, we also demonstrate the presence of large-scale fields when vertical (y–z) averaging is employed instead. By computing space–time planar averaged fields and power spectra, we find large-scale dynamo action in the early MRI growth phase – a previously unidentified feature. Non-axisymmetric linear MRI modes with low horizontal wavenumbers and vertical wavenumbers near that of expected maximal growth, amplify the large-scale fields exponentially before turbulence and high wavenumbermore » fluctuations arise. Thus the large-scale dynamo requires only linear fluctuations but not non-linear turbulence (as defined by mode–mode coupling). Vertical averaging also allows for monitoring the evolution of the large-scale vertical field and we find that a feedback from horizontal low wavenumber MRI modes provides a clue as to why the large-scale vertical field sustains against turbulent diffusion in the non-linear saturation regime. We compute the terms in the mean field equations to identify the individual contributions to large-scale field growth for both types of averaging. The large-scale fields obtained from vertical averaging are found to compare well with global simulations and quasi-linear analytical analysis from a previous study by Ebrahimi & Blackman. We discuss the potential implications of these new results for understanding the large-scale MRI dynamo saturation and turbulence.« less
  • We investigate the background magnetic field dependence of the saturated state of a magnetorotational instability (MRI) in an accretion disk by performing three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We assume an unstratified disk by employing the local shearing box approximation. Three different uniform background magnetic field configurations are treated for a wide range of field intensities. These simulations indicate that the time variations of the turbulent stress and the magnetic energy are altered by the presence of a poloidal component of the background field. We find that the saturation amplitude of the turbulent stress and the magnetic energy are determined by both themore » poloidal and azimuthal components of the field. In particular, when the poloidal component has the same intensity, the obtained turbulent stress for {beta}{sub y0} Almost-Equal-To 200 becomes smaller than those for a purely poloidal field case. Despite the fact that the background field affects the MRI turbulence, the correlation between the obtained turbulent stress and the magnetic energy in the nonlinear stage is independent of the field topology. Our results indicate that the saturated turbulent stress has a stronger correlation with the power of the perturbed component of the magnetic field than with the power of the total magnetic field. These results suggest that both the intensity and the direction of the background magnetic field significantly affect the turbulent motion of the MRI in accretion disks.« less
  • Global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of turbulent accretion disks are presented which start from fully equilibrium initial conditions in which the magnetic forces are accounted for and the induction equation is satisfied. The local linear theory of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is used as a predictor of the growth of magnetic field perturbations in the global simulations. The linear growth estimates and global simulations diverge when nonlinear motions-perhaps triggered by the onset of turbulence-upset the velocity perturbations used to excite the MRI. The saturated state is found to be independent of the initially excited MRI mode, showing that once themore » disk has expelled the initially net flux field and settled into quasi-periodic oscillations in the toroidal magnetic flux, the dynamo cycle regulates the global saturation stress level. Furthermore, time-averaged measures of converged turbulence, such as the ratio of magnetic energies, are found to be in agreement with previous works. In particular, the globally averaged stress normalized to the gas pressure <{alpha}{sub P}>bar = 0.034, with notably higher values achieved for simulations with higher azimuthal resolution. Supplementary tests are performed using different numerical algorithms and resolutions. Convergence with resolution during the initial linear MRI growth phase is found for 23-35 cells per scale height (in the vertical direction).« less