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Title: DUST PRODUCTION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERNOVA 1987A REVEALED WITH ALMA

Abstract

Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to observe SN 1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450 μm, 870 μm, 1.4 mm, and 2.8 mm, an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2 M {sub ☉}). For the first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold remnants of the exploded star's core). The dust emission is concentrated at the center of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological dust producers.

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]; ;  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12]; ;  [13];  [14];  [15];  [16] more »; « less
  1. Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, PO Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
  3. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
  4. International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research (ICRAR), University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)
  5. Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium)
  6. CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  7. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
  8. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)
  9. Department of Astronomy and the Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)
  10. Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO) (Australia)
  11. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  12. Lennard-Jones Laboratories, Keele University, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom)
  13. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
  14. Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-43992 Onsala (Sweden)
  15. Universidad de Valencia, C/Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)
  16. Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, UCB 391, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22364002
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal Letters; Journal Volume: 782; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCELERATION; COSMIC DUST; GALACTIC EVOLUTION; IMAGES; MAGELLANIC CLOUDS; MASS; METALLICITY; PHOTON EMISSION; SHOCK HEATING; SUPERNOVA REMNANTS; SUPERNOVAE; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; TELESCOPES; WAVELENGTHS

Citation Formats

Indebetouw, R., Chevalier, R., Matsuura, M., Barlow, M. J., Dwek, E., Zanardo, G., Baes, M., Bouchet, P., Burrows, D. N., Clayton, G. C., Fransson, C., Lundqvist, P., Gaensler, B., Kirshner, R., Lakićević, M., Long, K. S., Meixner, M., Martí-Vidal, I., Marcaide, J., McCray, R., E-mail: remy@virginia.edu, and and others. DUST PRODUCTION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERNOVA 1987A REVEALED WITH ALMA. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/782/1/L2.
Indebetouw, R., Chevalier, R., Matsuura, M., Barlow, M. J., Dwek, E., Zanardo, G., Baes, M., Bouchet, P., Burrows, D. N., Clayton, G. C., Fransson, C., Lundqvist, P., Gaensler, B., Kirshner, R., Lakićević, M., Long, K. S., Meixner, M., Martí-Vidal, I., Marcaide, J., McCray, R., E-mail: remy@virginia.edu, & and others. DUST PRODUCTION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERNOVA 1987A REVEALED WITH ALMA. United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/782/1/L2.
Indebetouw, R., Chevalier, R., Matsuura, M., Barlow, M. J., Dwek, E., Zanardo, G., Baes, M., Bouchet, P., Burrows, D. N., Clayton, G. C., Fransson, C., Lundqvist, P., Gaensler, B., Kirshner, R., Lakićević, M., Long, K. S., Meixner, M., Martí-Vidal, I., Marcaide, J., McCray, R., E-mail: remy@virginia.edu, and and others. Mon . "DUST PRODUCTION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERNOVA 1987A REVEALED WITH ALMA". United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/782/1/L2.
@article{osti_22364002,
title = {DUST PRODUCTION AND PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN SUPERNOVA 1987A REVEALED WITH ALMA},
author = {Indebetouw, R. and Chevalier, R. and Matsuura, M. and Barlow, M. J. and Dwek, E. and Zanardo, G. and Baes, M. and Bouchet, P. and Burrows, D. N. and Clayton, G. C. and Fransson, C. and Lundqvist, P. and Gaensler, B. and Kirshner, R. and Lakićević, M. and Long, K. S. and Meixner, M. and Martí-Vidal, I. and Marcaide, J. and McCray, R., E-mail: remy@virginia.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to observe SN 1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450 μm, 870 μm, 1.4 mm, and 2.8 mm, an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2 M {sub ☉}). For the first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold remnants of the exploded star's core). The dust emission is concentrated at the center of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological dust producers.},
doi = {10.1088/2041-8205/782/1/L2},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 782,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 10 00:00:00 EST 2014},
month = {Mon Feb 10 00:00:00 EST 2014}
}
  • We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz (λ 3.2 mm to 450 μm), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-westmore » asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component (S {sub ν}∝ν{sup –0.73}) and the thermal component originating from dust grains at T ∼ 22 K. This excess could be due to free-free flux or emission from grains of colder dust. However, a second flat-spectrum synchrotron component appears to better fit the SED, implying that the emission could be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The residual emission is mainly localized west of the SN site, as the spectral analysis yields –0.4 ≲ α ≲ –0.1 across the western regions, with α ∼ 0 around the central region. If there is a PWN in the remnant interior, these data suggest that the pulsar may be offset westward from the SN position.« less
  • We report deep ALMA observations complemented by associated Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging for a luminous (m {sub UV} = 25) galaxy, 'Himiko', at a redshift of z = 6.595. The galaxy is remarkable for its high star formation rate, 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which has been securely estimated from our deep HST and Spitzer photometry, and the absence of any evidence for strong active galactic nucleus activity or gravitational lensing magnification. Our ALMA observations probe an order of magnitude deeper than previous IRAM observations, yet fail to detect a 1.2 mm dust continuum, indicating a flux ofmore » <52 μJy, which is comparable to or weaker than that of local dwarf irregulars with much lower star formation rates. We likewise provide a strong upper limit for the flux of [C II] 158 μm, L{sub [C} {sub II]}<5.4×10{sup 7} L{sub ⊙}, which is a diagnostic of the hot interstellar gas that is often described as a valuable probe for early galaxies. In fact, our observations indicate that Himiko lies off the local L{sub [C} {sub II]}-star formation rate scaling relation by a factor of more than 30. Both aspects of our ALMA observations suggest that Himiko is a unique object with a very low dust content and perhaps nearly primordial interstellar gas. Our HST images provide unique insight into the morphology of this remarkable source, highlighting an extremely blue core of activity and two less extreme associated clumps. Himiko is undergoing a triple major merger event whose extensive ionized nebula of Lyα emitting gas, discovered in our earlier work with Subaru, is powered by star formation and the dense circumgalactic gas. We are likely witnessing an early massive galaxy during a key period of its mass assembly close to the end of the reionization era.« less
  • We present new images of Arp 220 from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array with the highest combination of frequency (691 GHz) and resolution (0.''36 × 0.''20) ever obtained for this prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy. The western nucleus is revealed to contain warm (200 K) dust that is optically thick (τ{sub 434} {sub μm} = 5.3), while the eastern nucleus is cooler (80 K) and somewhat less opaque (τ{sub 434} {sub μm} = 1.7). We derive full width at half-maximum diameters of 76 × ≤ 70 pc and 123 × 79 pc for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively. The two nuclei combined account for (83{sub −38}{supmore » +65} (calibration) {sub −34}{sup +0} (systematic))% of the total infrared luminosity of Arp 220. The luminosity surface density of the western nucleus (log (σT{sup 4})=14.3±0.2{sub −0.7}{sup +0} in units of L {sub ☉} kpc{sup –2}) appears sufficiently high to require the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or a ''hot starburst'', although the exact value depends sensitively on the brightness distribution adopted for the source. Although the role of any central AGN remains open, the inferred mean gas column densities of (0.6-1.8) × 10{sup 25} cm{sup –2} mean that any AGN in Arp 220 must be Compton-thick.« less
  • Shortly after its outburst, the authors suggested that supernova 1987a might condense a dust shell of substantial visual optical thickness as many classical novae do and predicted that dust might form within a year after the explosion. A critical examination of recent optical and infrared observations reported by others confirms that dust grains had begun to grow at a temperature of 1,000 K after 300 days and that the dust shell had become optically thick by day 600. After day 600, the infrared luminosity closely followed the intrinsic luminosity expected for thermalized {sup 56}Co {gamma} rays, demonstrating that the luminositymore » is powered by radioactivity and that the dust is outside the radioactivity zone. The infrared luminosity sets an upper limit to the soft intrinsic bolometric luminosity of a pulsar central engine. This upper limit for the pulsar in supernova 1987a is the same luminosity as the Crab pulsar has today 936 years after its formation. It is unlikely that the rotation rate for a pulsar in supernova 1987a can be much higher than {approx}30 revolutions per sec. The relatively long time required for the shell to grow to maximum optical depth as compared with the dust in nova shells may be related to the relatively low outflow velocity of the condensible ejecta.« less
  • We present new Herschel photometric and spectroscopic observations of Supernova 1987A, carried out in 2012. Our dedicated photometric measurements provide new 70 μm data and improved imaging quality at 100 and 160 μm compared to previous observations in 2010. Our Herschel spectra show only weak CO line emission, and provide an upper limit for the 63 μm [O I] line flux, eliminating the possibility that line contaminations distort the previously estimated dust mass. The far-infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) is well fitted by thermal emission from cold dust. The newly measured 70 μm flux constrains the dust temperature, limiting itmore » to nearly a single temperature. The far-infrared emission can be fitted by 0.5 ± 0.1 M {sub ☉} of amorphous carbon, about a factor of two larger than the current nucleosynthetic mass prediction for carbon. The observation of SiO molecules at early and late phases suggests that silicates may also have formed and we could fit the SED with a combination of 0.3 M {sub ☉} of amorphous carbon and 0.5 M {sub ☉} of silicates, totalling 0.8 M {sub ☉} of dust. Our analysis thus supports the presence of a large dust reservoir in the ejecta of SN 1987A. The inferred dust mass suggests that supernovae can be an important source of dust in the interstellar medium, from local to high-redshift galaxies.« less