skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β PIC b. I. Direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-IR with NICI {sup ,}

Abstract

We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (Y{sub S} , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.''010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10{sup –5}. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH {sub 4S,1%} (1.58 μm), K{sub S} (2.18 μm), and K {sub cont} (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L {sub bol}/L {sub ☉}) = –3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M {sub Jup} for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L {sub bol}-based hot-start estimate for temperaturemore » is T {sub eff} = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R {sub Jup}, this T {sub eff} is ∼250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3]; ; ; ; ; ;  [4];  [5];  [6] more »; « less
  1. Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
  2. European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001 Santiago (Chile)
  3. Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)
  4. Arcetri Observatory/INAF, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125-Firenze (Italy)
  5. Institute for Astronomy, The University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)
  6. Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22356962
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 786; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICES; COLOR; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DETECTION; DEUTERIUM; GRAVITATION; HEAT EXCHANGERS; IMAGES; MASS; NEAR INFRARED RADIATION; OPTICS; PHOTOMETRY; PLANETS; PROBABILITY; SATELLITES; SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO; STARS; TELESCOPES; VISIBLE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Males, Jared R., Close, Laird M., Morzinski, Katie M., Skemer, Andrew J., Kopon, Derek, Follette, Katherine B., Hinz, Philip M., Rodigas, Timothy J., Wahhaj, Zahed, Liu, Michael C., Nielsen, Eric L., Chun, Mark, Puglisi, Alfio, Esposito, Simone, Riccardi, Armando, Pinna, Enrico, Xompero, Marco, Briguglio, Runa, Biller, Beth A., Hayward, Thomas L., E-mail: jrmales@as.arizona.edu, and and others. Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β PIC b. I. Direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-IR with NICI {sup ,}. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/786/1/32.
Males, Jared R., Close, Laird M., Morzinski, Katie M., Skemer, Andrew J., Kopon, Derek, Follette, Katherine B., Hinz, Philip M., Rodigas, Timothy J., Wahhaj, Zahed, Liu, Michael C., Nielsen, Eric L., Chun, Mark, Puglisi, Alfio, Esposito, Simone, Riccardi, Armando, Pinna, Enrico, Xompero, Marco, Briguglio, Runa, Biller, Beth A., Hayward, Thomas L., E-mail: jrmales@as.arizona.edu, & and others. Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β PIC b. I. Direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-IR with NICI {sup ,}. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/786/1/32.
Males, Jared R., Close, Laird M., Morzinski, Katie M., Skemer, Andrew J., Kopon, Derek, Follette, Katherine B., Hinz, Philip M., Rodigas, Timothy J., Wahhaj, Zahed, Liu, Michael C., Nielsen, Eric L., Chun, Mark, Puglisi, Alfio, Esposito, Simone, Riccardi, Armando, Pinna, Enrico, Xompero, Marco, Briguglio, Runa, Biller, Beth A., Hayward, Thomas L., E-mail: jrmales@as.arizona.edu, and and others. 2014. "Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β PIC b. I. Direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-IR with NICI {sup ,}". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/786/1/32.
@article{osti_22356962,
title = {Magellan adaptive optics first-light observations of the exoplanet β PIC b. I. Direct imaging in the far-red optical with MagAO+VisAO and in the near-IR with NICI {sup ,}},
author = {Males, Jared R. and Close, Laird M. and Morzinski, Katie M. and Skemer, Andrew J. and Kopon, Derek and Follette, Katherine B. and Hinz, Philip M. and Rodigas, Timothy J. and Wahhaj, Zahed and Liu, Michael C. and Nielsen, Eric L. and Chun, Mark and Puglisi, Alfio and Esposito, Simone and Riccardi, Armando and Pinna, Enrico and Xompero, Marco and Briguglio, Runa and Biller, Beth A. and Hayward, Thomas L., E-mail: jrmales@as.arizona.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {We present the first ground-based CCD (λ < 1 μm) image of an extrasolar planet. Using the Magellan Adaptive Optics system's VisAO camera, we detected the extrasolar giant planet β Pictoris b in Y-short (Y{sub S} , 0.985 μm), at a separation of 0.470 ± 0.''010 and a contrast of (1.63 ± 0.49) × 10{sup –5}. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1 with an empirically estimated upper limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the Gemini Near-Infrared Coronagraphic Imager instrument on the Gemini South telescope, in CH {sub 4S,1%} (1.58 μm), K{sub S} (2.18 μm), and K {sub cont} (2.27 μm). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L2.5 ± 1.5, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log (L {sub bol}/L {sub ☉}) = –3.86 ± 0.04, which is consistent with prior estimates for β Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs (BDs). This yields a hot-start mass estimate of 11.9 ± 0.7 M {sub Jup} for an age of 21 ± 4 Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our L {sub bol}-based hot-start estimate for temperature is T {sub eff} = 1643 ± 32 K (not including model-dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of R = 1.43 ± 0.02 R {sub Jup}, this T {sub eff} is ∼250 K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 BD. Other young, low-gravity (large-radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field BDs. In contrast, β Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/786/1/32},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 786,
place = {United States},
year = 2014,
month = 5
}
  • We utilized the new high-order (250-378 mode) Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high spatial resolution observations in ''visible light'' with MagAO's VisAO CCD camera. In the good-median seeing conditions of Magellan (0.''5-0.''7), we find MagAO delivers individual short exposure images as good as 19 mas optical resolution. Due to telescope vibrations, long exposure (60 s) r' (0.63 {mu}m) images are slightly coarser at FWHM = 23-29 mas (Strehl {approx}28%) with bright (R < 9 mag) guide stars. These are the highest resolution filled-aperture images published to date. Images of the young ({approx}1 Myr) Orion Trapezium {theta}{sup 1}more » Ori A, B, and C cluster members were obtained with VisAO. In particular, the 32 mas binary {theta}{sup 1} Ori C{sub 1} C{sub 2} was easily resolved in non-interferometric images for the first time. The relative positions of the bright trapezium binary stars were measured with {approx}0.6-5 mas accuracy. We are now sensitive to relative proper motions of just {approx}0.2 mas yr{sup -1} ({approx}0.4 km s{sup -1} at 414 pc)-this is a {approx}2-10 Multiplication-Sign improvement in orbital velocity accuracy compared to previous efforts. For the first time, we see clear motion of the barycenter of {theta}{sup 1} Ori B{sub 2} B{sub 3} about {theta}{sup 1} Ori B{sub 1}. All five members of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system appear likely to be a gravitationally bound ''mini cluster'', but we find that not all the orbits can be both circular and co-planar. The lowest mass member of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system (B{sub 4}; mass {approx}0.2 M{sub Sun }) has a very clearly detected motion (at 4.1 {+-} 1.3 km s{sup -1}; correlation = 99.9%) w.r.t. B{sub 1}. Previous work has suggested that B{sub 4} and B{sub 3} are on long-term unstable orbits and will be ejected from this ''mini cluster''. However, our new ''baseline'' model of the {theta}{sup 1} Ori B system suggests a more hierarchical system than previously thought, and so the ejection of B{sub 4} may not occur for many orbits, and B{sub 3} may be stable against ejection in the long-term. This ''ejection'' process of the lowest mass member of a ''mini cluster'' could play a major role in the formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs.« less
  • We present high-resolution adaptive optics (AO) corrected images of the silhouette disk Orion 218-354 taken with Magellan AO (MagAO) and its visible light camera, VisAO, in simultaneous differential imaging mode at Hα. This is the first image of a circumstellar disk seen in silhouette with AO and is among the first visible light AO results in the literature. We derive the disk extent, geometry, intensity, and extinction profiles and find, in contrast with previous work, that the disk is likely optically thin at Hα. Our data provide an estimate of the column density in primitive, ISM-like grains as a functionmore » of radius in the disk. We estimate that only ∼10% of the total submillimeter derived disk mass lies in primitive, unprocessed grains. We use our data, Monte Carlo radiative transfer modeling, and previous results from the literature to make the first self-consistent multiwavelength model of Orion 218-354. We find that we are able to reproduce the 1-1000 μm spectral energy distribution with a ∼2-540 AU disk of the size, geometry, small versus large grain proportion, and radial mass profile indicated by our data. This inner radius is a factor of ∼15 larger than the sublimation radius of the disk, suggesting that it is likely cleared in the very interior.« less
  • The Robo-AO Kepler Planetary Candidate Survey is observing every Kepler planet candidate host star with laser adaptive optics imaging to search for blended nearby stars, which may be physically associated companions and/or responsible for transit false positives. In this paper, we present the results from the 2012 observing season, searching for stars close to 715 Kepler planet candidate hosts. We find 53 companions, 43 of which are new discoveries. We detail the Robo-AO survey data reduction methods including a method of using the large ensemble of target observations as mutual point-spread-function references, along with a new automated companion-detection algorithm designedmore » for large adaptive optics surveys. Our survey is sensitive to objects from ≈0.''15 to 2.''5 separation, with magnitude differences up to Δm ≈ 6. We measure an overall nearby-star probability for Kepler planet candidates of 7.4% ± 1.0%, and calculate the effects of each detected nearby star on the Kepler-measured planetary radius. We discuss several Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) of particular interest, including KOI-191 and KOI-1151, which are both multi-planet systems with detected stellar companions whose unusual planetary system architecture might be best explained if they are 'coincident multiple' systems, with several transiting planets shared between the two stars. Finally, we find 98% confidence evidence that short-period giant planets are two to three times more likely than longer-period planets to be found in wide stellar binaries.« less
  • We report the first multicolor polarimetric measurements (UBV bands) for the hot Jupiter HD189733b and confirm our previously reported detection of polarization in the B band. The wavelength dependence of polarization indicates the dominance of Rayleigh scattering with a peak in the blue B and U bands of {approx}10{sup -4} {+-} 10{sup -5} and at least a factor of two lower signal in the V band. The Rayleigh-like wavelength dependence, also detected in the transmitted light during transits, implies a rapid decrease of the polarization signal toward longer wavelengths. Therefore, the nondetection by Wiktorowicz, based on a measurement integrated withinmore » a broad passband covering the V band and partly covering the B and R bands, is inconclusive and consistent with our detection in B. We discuss possible sources of the polarization and demonstrate that effects of incomplete cancellation of stellar limb polarization due to starspots or tidal perturbations are negligible as compared with scattering polarization in the planetary atmosphere. We compare the observations with a Rayleigh-Lambert model and determine effective radii and geometrical albedos for different wavelengths. We find a close similarity of the wavelength-dependent geometrical albedo with that of the Neptune atmosphere, which is known to be strongly influenced by Rayleigh and Raman scattering. Our result establishes polarimetry as a reliable means for directly studying exoplanetary atmospheres.« less