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Title: Type Ia supernova rate measurements to redshift 2.5 from CANDELS: Searching for prompt explosions in the early universe

Abstract

The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that surveyed a total area of ∼0.25 deg{sup 2} with ∼900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z ∼ 2.5. We classify ∼24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only ∼3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (<500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction is f{sub P} = 0.53{sub stat0.10}{sup ±0.09}{sub sys0.26}{sup ±0.10}, consistentmore » with a delay time distribution that follows a simple t {sup –1} power law for all times t > 40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20% of all SN Ia explosions—though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ; ; ; ;  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]; ; ;  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11] more »; « less
  1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
  2. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
  3. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)
  4. Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)
  5. E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
  6. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
  7. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  8. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)
  9. Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
  10. Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
  11. Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22342298
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 148; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 1538-3881
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; DETECTION; DISTRIBUTION; EXPLOSIONS; GALAXIES; LIMITING VALUES; NEAR INFRARED RADIATION; ORBITS; PHOTOMETRY; RED SHIFT; SPACE; SPECTROSCOPY; SUPERNOVAE; TELESCOPES; TIME DELAY; UNIVERSE

Citation Formats

Rodney, Steven A., Riess, Adam G., Graur, Or, Jones, David O., Strolger, Louis-Gregory, Dahlen, Tomas, Casertano, Stefano, Ferguson, Henry C., Koekemoer, Anton M., Dickinson, Mark E., Garnavich, Peter, Hayden, Brian, Jha, Saurabh W., McCully, Curtis, Patel, Brandon, Kirshner, Robert P., Mobasher, Bahram, Weiner, Benjamin J., Cenko, S. Bradley, Clubb, Kelsey I., and others, and. Type Ia supernova rate measurements to redshift 2.5 from CANDELS: Searching for prompt explosions in the early universe. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/148/1/13.
Rodney, Steven A., Riess, Adam G., Graur, Or, Jones, David O., Strolger, Louis-Gregory, Dahlen, Tomas, Casertano, Stefano, Ferguson, Henry C., Koekemoer, Anton M., Dickinson, Mark E., Garnavich, Peter, Hayden, Brian, Jha, Saurabh W., McCully, Curtis, Patel, Brandon, Kirshner, Robert P., Mobasher, Bahram, Weiner, Benjamin J., Cenko, S. Bradley, Clubb, Kelsey I., & others, and. Type Ia supernova rate measurements to redshift 2.5 from CANDELS: Searching for prompt explosions in the early universe. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/148/1/13.
Rodney, Steven A., Riess, Adam G., Graur, Or, Jones, David O., Strolger, Louis-Gregory, Dahlen, Tomas, Casertano, Stefano, Ferguson, Henry C., Koekemoer, Anton M., Dickinson, Mark E., Garnavich, Peter, Hayden, Brian, Jha, Saurabh W., McCully, Curtis, Patel, Brandon, Kirshner, Robert P., Mobasher, Bahram, Weiner, Benjamin J., Cenko, S. Bradley, Clubb, Kelsey I., and others, and. Tue . "Type Ia supernova rate measurements to redshift 2.5 from CANDELS: Searching for prompt explosions in the early universe". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/148/1/13.
@article{osti_22342298,
title = {Type Ia supernova rate measurements to redshift 2.5 from CANDELS: Searching for prompt explosions in the early universe},
author = {Rodney, Steven A. and Riess, Adam G. and Graur, Or and Jones, David O. and Strolger, Louis-Gregory and Dahlen, Tomas and Casertano, Stefano and Ferguson, Henry C. and Koekemoer, Anton M. and Dickinson, Mark E. and Garnavich, Peter and Hayden, Brian and Jha, Saurabh W. and McCully, Curtis and Patel, Brandon and Kirshner, Robert P. and Mobasher, Bahram and Weiner, Benjamin J. and Cenko, S. Bradley and Clubb, Kelsey I. and others, and},
abstractNote = {The Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) was a multi-cycle treasury program on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) that surveyed a total area of ∼0.25 deg{sup 2} with ∼900 HST orbits spread across five fields over three years. Within these survey images we discovered 65 supernovae (SNe) of all types, out to z ∼ 2.5. We classify ∼24 of these as Type Ia SNe (SNe Ia) based on host galaxy redshifts and SN photometry (supplemented by grism spectroscopy of six SNe). Here we present a measurement of the volumetric SN Ia rate as a function of redshift, reaching for the first time beyond z = 2 and putting new constraints on SN Ia progenitor models. Our highest redshift bin includes detections of SNe that exploded when the universe was only ∼3 Gyr old and near the peak of the cosmic star formation history. This gives the CANDELS high redshift sample unique leverage for evaluating the fraction of SNe Ia that explode promptly after formation (<500 Myr). Combining the CANDELS rates with all available SN Ia rate measurements in the literature we find that this prompt SN Ia fraction is f{sub P} = 0.53{sub stat0.10}{sup ±0.09}{sub sys0.26}{sup ±0.10}, consistent with a delay time distribution that follows a simple t {sup –1} power law for all times t > 40 Myr. However, mild tension is apparent between ground-based low-z surveys and space-based high-z surveys. In both CANDELS and the sister HST program CLASH (Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey with Hubble), we find a low rate of SNe Ia at z > 1. This could be a hint that prompt progenitors are in fact relatively rare, accounting for only 20% of all SN Ia explosions—though further analysis and larger samples will be needed to examine that suggestion.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-6256/148/1/13},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online)},
issn = {1538-3881},
number = 1,
volume = 148,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {7}
}