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Title: A strict test of stellar evolution models: The absolute dimensions of the massive benchmark eclipsing binary V578 Mon

Abstract

We determine the absolute dimensions of the eclipsing binary V578 Mon, a detached system of two early B-type stars (B0V + B1V, P = 2.40848 days) in the star-forming region NGC 2244 of the Rosette Nebula. From the light curve analysis of 40 yr of photometry and the analysis of HERMES spectra, we find radii of 5.41 ± 0.04 R{sub ☉} and 4.29 ± 0.05 R{sub ☉}, and temperatures of 30,000 ± 500 K and 25,750 ± 435 K, respectively. We find that our disentangled component spectra for V578 Mon agree well with previous spectral disentangling from the literature. We also reconfirm the previous spectroscopic orbit of V578 Mon finding that masses of 14.54 ± 0.08 M{sub ☉} and 10.29 ± 0.06 M{sub ☉} are fully compatible with the new analysis. We compare the absolute dimensions to the rotating models of the Geneva and Utrecht groups and the models of the Granada group. We find that all three sets of models marginally reproduce the absolute dimensions of both stars with a common age within the uncertainty for gravity-effective temperature isochrones. However, there are some apparent age discrepancies for the corresponding mass-radius isochrones. Models with larger convective overshoot, >0.35, worked best.more » Combined with our previously determined apsidal motion of 0.07089{sub −0.00013}{sup +0.00021} deg cycle{sup –1}, we compute the internal structure constants (tidal Love number) for the Newtonian and general relativistic contribution to the apsidal motion as log k {sub 2} = –1.975 ± 0.017 and log k {sub 2} = –3.412 ± 0.018, respectively. We find the relativistic contribution to the apsidal motion to be small, <4%. We find that the prediction of log k {sub 2,theo} = –2.005 ± 0.025 of the Granada models fully agrees with our observed log k {sub 2}.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, VU Station B 1807, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka cesta 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)
  3. Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)
  4. Physics Department, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
  5. Instituto de Astrofsica de Andaluca, CSIC, Apartado 3004, E-18080 Granada (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22342270
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online); Journal Volume: 148; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; BENCHMARKS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; ECLIPSE; FORECASTING; GRAVITATION; MASS; NEBULAE; ORBITS; PHOTOMETRY; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; SPECTRA; STAR EVOLUTION; STARS; VISIBLE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Garcia, E. V., Stassun, Keivan G., Pavlovski, K., Hensberge, H., Chew, Y. Gómez Maqueo, and Claret, A., E-mail: eugenio.v.garcia@gmail.com. A strict test of stellar evolution models: The absolute dimensions of the massive benchmark eclipsing binary V578 Mon. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/148/3/39.
Garcia, E. V., Stassun, Keivan G., Pavlovski, K., Hensberge, H., Chew, Y. Gómez Maqueo, & Claret, A., E-mail: eugenio.v.garcia@gmail.com. A strict test of stellar evolution models: The absolute dimensions of the massive benchmark eclipsing binary V578 Mon. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/148/3/39.
Garcia, E. V., Stassun, Keivan G., Pavlovski, K., Hensberge, H., Chew, Y. Gómez Maqueo, and Claret, A., E-mail: eugenio.v.garcia@gmail.com. Mon . "A strict test of stellar evolution models: The absolute dimensions of the massive benchmark eclipsing binary V578 Mon". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/148/3/39.
@article{osti_22342270,
title = {A strict test of stellar evolution models: The absolute dimensions of the massive benchmark eclipsing binary V578 Mon},
author = {Garcia, E. V. and Stassun, Keivan G. and Pavlovski, K. and Hensberge, H. and Chew, Y. Gómez Maqueo and Claret, A., E-mail: eugenio.v.garcia@gmail.com},
abstractNote = {We determine the absolute dimensions of the eclipsing binary V578 Mon, a detached system of two early B-type stars (B0V + B1V, P = 2.40848 days) in the star-forming region NGC 2244 of the Rosette Nebula. From the light curve analysis of 40 yr of photometry and the analysis of HERMES spectra, we find radii of 5.41 ± 0.04 R{sub ☉} and 4.29 ± 0.05 R{sub ☉}, and temperatures of 30,000 ± 500 K and 25,750 ± 435 K, respectively. We find that our disentangled component spectra for V578 Mon agree well with previous spectral disentangling from the literature. We also reconfirm the previous spectroscopic orbit of V578 Mon finding that masses of 14.54 ± 0.08 M{sub ☉} and 10.29 ± 0.06 M{sub ☉} are fully compatible with the new analysis. We compare the absolute dimensions to the rotating models of the Geneva and Utrecht groups and the models of the Granada group. We find that all three sets of models marginally reproduce the absolute dimensions of both stars with a common age within the uncertainty for gravity-effective temperature isochrones. However, there are some apparent age discrepancies for the corresponding mass-radius isochrones. Models with larger convective overshoot, >0.35, worked best. Combined with our previously determined apsidal motion of 0.07089{sub −0.00013}{sup +0.00021} deg cycle{sup –1}, we compute the internal structure constants (tidal Love number) for the Newtonian and general relativistic contribution to the apsidal motion as log k {sub 2} = –1.975 ± 0.017 and log k {sub 2} = –3.412 ± 0.018, respectively. We find the relativistic contribution to the apsidal motion to be small, <4%. We find that the prediction of log k {sub 2,theo} = –2.005 ± 0.025 of the Granada models fully agrees with our observed log k {sub 2}.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-6256/148/3/39},
journal = {Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online)},
number = 3,
volume = 148,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • We report extensive spectroscopic and differential photometric BVRI observations of the active, detached, 1.309-day double-lined eclipsing binary IM Vir, composed of a G7-type primary and a K7 secondary. With these observations, we derive accurate absolute masses and radii of M {sub 1} = 0.981 +- 0.012 M {sub sun}, M {sub 2} = 0.6644 +- 0.0048 M {sub sun}, R {sub 1} = 1.061 +- 0.016 R {sub sun}, and R {sub 2} = 0.681 +- 0.013 R {sub sun} for the primary and secondary, with relative errors under 2%. The effective temperatures are 5570 +- 100 K and 4250more » +- 130 K, respectively. The significant difference in mass makes this a favorable case for comparison with stellar evolution theory. We find that both stars are larger than the models predict, by 3.7% for the primary and 7.5% for the secondary, as well as cooler than expected, by 100 K and 150 K, respectively. These discrepancies are in line with previously reported differences in low-mass stars, and are believed to be caused by chromospheric activity, which is not accounted for in current models. The effect is not confined to low-mass stars: the rapidly rotating primary of IM Vir joins the growing list of objects of near-solar mass (but still with convective envelopes) that show similar anomalies. The comparison with the models suggests an age of 2.4 Gyr for the system, and a metallicity of [Fe/H] approx-0.3 that is consistent with other indications, but requires confirmation.« less
  • We report differential photometric observations and radial-velocity measurements of the detached, 1.69 day period, double-lined eclipsing binary AQ Ser. Accurate masses and radii for the components are determined to better than 1.8% and 1.1%, respectively, and are M {sub 1} = 1.417 ± 0.021 M {sub ☉}, M {sub 2} = 1.346 ± 0.024 M {sub ☉}, R {sub 1} = 2.451 ± 0.027 R {sub ☉}, and R {sub 2} = 2.281 ± 0.014 R {sub ☉}. The temperatures are 6340 ± 100 K (spectral type F6) and 6430 ± 100 K (F5), respectively. Both stars are considerably evolved,more » such that predictions from stellar evolution theory are particularly sensitive to the degree of extra mixing above the convective core (overshoot). The component masses are different enough to exclude a location in the H-R diagram past the point of central hydrogen exhaustion, which implies the need for extra mixing. Moreover, we find that current main-sequence models are unable to match the observed properties at a single age even when allowing the unknown metallicity, mixing length parameter, and convective overshooting parameter to vary freely and independently for the two components. The age of the more massive star appears systematically younger. AQ Ser and other similarly evolved eclipsing binaries showing the same discrepancy highlight an outstanding and largely overlooked problem with the description of overshooting in current stellar theory.« less
  • V578 Mon is a system of two early B-type stars in the Rosette Nebula star-forming region (NGC 2244) and is one of only nine eclipsing binaries with component masses greater than 10 M{sub sun} whose physical parameters have been determined with an accuracy of better than 3%. It is therefore a benchmark system for evolutionary and stellar structure models of newly formed massive stars. Combining our multi-band light curves spanning 40 yr with previous light curve data from the literature, we fit a model light curve that for the first time includes the effects of apsidal motion of the system.more » We measure an apsidal period of 33.48{sup +0.10}{sub -0.06} yr. As a consequence of incorporating the apsidal motion into the modeling of the system's orbital parameters, we determine an updated eccentricity of e = 0.07755{sup +0.00022}{sub -0.00027}, which differs significantly from the value previously reported in the literature. Evidently, the inclusion of apsidal motion in the light curve modeling significantly affects the eccentricity determination. Incorporating these key parameters into a comprehensive model of the system's physical parameters-including internal structure constraints-will bring V578 Mon to the next level of benchmark precision and utility.« less
  • We report extensive photometric and spectroscopic observations of the 6.1 day period, G+M-type detached double-lined eclipsing binary V530 Ori, an important new benchmark system for testing stellar evolution models for low-mass stars. We determine accurate masses and radii for the components with errors of 0.7% and 1.3%, as follows: M {sub A} = 1.0038 ± 0.0066 M {sub ☉}, M {sub B} = 0.5955 ± 0.0022 M {sub ☉}, R {sub A} = 0.980 ± 0.013 R {sub ☉}, and R {sub B} = 0.5873 ± 0.0067 R {sub ☉}. The effective temperatures are 5890 ± 100 K (G1 V)more » and 3880 ± 120 K (M1 V), respectively. A detailed chemical analysis probing more than 20 elements in the primary spectrum shows the system to have a slightly subsolar abundance, with [Fe/H] = –0.12 ± 0.08. A comparison with theory reveals that standard models underpredict the radius and overpredict the temperature of the secondary, as has been found previously for other M dwarfs. On the other hand, models from the Dartmouth series incorporating magnetic fields are able to match the observations of the secondary star at the same age as the primary (∼3 Gyr) with a surface field strength of 2.1 ± 0.4 kG when using a rotational dynamo prescription, or 1.3 ± 0.4 kG with a turbulent dynamo approach, not far from our empirical estimate for this star of 0.83 ± 0.65 kG. The observations are most consistent with magnetic fields playing only a small role in changing the global properties of the primary. The V530 Ori system thus provides an important demonstration that recent advances in modeling appear to be on the right track to explain the long-standing problem of radius inflation and temperature suppression in low-mass stars.« less
  • V578 Mon is an eclipsing binary system in which both stars have masses above 10 M {sub ☉} determined with an accuracy better than 3%. It is one of only five such massive eclipsing binaries known that also possess eccentric orbits and measured apsidal motions, thus making it an important benchmark for theoretical stellar evolution models. However, recently reported determinations of the radii of V578 Mon differ significantly from previously reported values. We reanalyze the published data for V578 Mon and trace the discrepancy to the use of an incorrect formulation for the stellar potentials in the most recent analysis.more » Here we report corrected radii for this important benchmark eclipsing binary.« less