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Title: Domain switching by electron beam irradiation of Z{sup +}-polar surface in Mg-doped lithium niobate

Abstract

The appearance of the static domains with depth above 200 μm in the bulk of MgO-doped lithium niobate single crystals as a result of focused electron beam irradiation of Z{sup +}-polar surface was demonstrated. The created domain patterns were visualized by high-resolution methods including piezoresponse force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopy. The main stages of the domain structure formation were revealed and explained in terms of the original model.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Institute of Natural Sciences, Ural Federal University, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22314500
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 105; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTRON BEAMS; LITHIUM; MAGNESIUM OXIDES; MONOCRYSTALS; NIOBATES; RAMAN EFFECT; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SURFACES; ZIRCONIUM IONS

Citation Formats

Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@urfu.ru, Chezganov, D. S., Smirnov, M. M., Alikin, D. O., Neradovskiy, M. M., and Kuznetsov, D. K.. Domain switching by electron beam irradiation of Z{sup +}-polar surface in Mg-doped lithium niobate. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4891842.
Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@urfu.ru, Chezganov, D. S., Smirnov, M. M., Alikin, D. O., Neradovskiy, M. M., & Kuznetsov, D. K.. Domain switching by electron beam irradiation of Z{sup +}-polar surface in Mg-doped lithium niobate. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4891842.
Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@urfu.ru, Chezganov, D. S., Smirnov, M. M., Alikin, D. O., Neradovskiy, M. M., and Kuznetsov, D. K.. Mon . "Domain switching by electron beam irradiation of Z{sup +}-polar surface in Mg-doped lithium niobate". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4891842.
@article{osti_22314500,
title = {Domain switching by electron beam irradiation of Z{sup +}-polar surface in Mg-doped lithium niobate},
author = {Shur, V. Ya., E-mail: vladimir.shur@urfu.ru and Chezganov, D. S. and Smirnov, M. M. and Alikin, D. O. and Neradovskiy, M. M. and Kuznetsov, D. K.},
abstractNote = {The appearance of the static domains with depth above 200 μm in the bulk of MgO-doped lithium niobate single crystals as a result of focused electron beam irradiation of Z{sup +}-polar surface was demonstrated. The created domain patterns were visualized by high-resolution methods including piezoresponse force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and confocal Raman microscopy. The main stages of the domain structure formation were revealed and explained in terms of the original model.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4891842},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 5,
volume = 105,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 04 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Aug 04 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Controlling ferroelectric switching in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) is of fundamental importance for optical device and domain wall electronics applications that require precise domain patterns. Stable ferroelectric switching has been previously observed in undoped LN layers above proton exchanged (PE) phases that exhibit reduced polarization, whereas PE layers have been found to inhibit lateral domain growth. Here, Mg doping, which is known to significantly alter ferroelectric switching properties including coercive field and switching currents, is shown to inhibit domain nucleation and stability in Mg:LN above buried PE phases that allow for precise ferroelectric patterning via domain growth control. Furthermore,more » piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and switching spectroscopy PFM reveal that the voltage at which polarization switches from the “up” to the “down” state increases with increasing thickness in pure Mg:LN, whereas the voltage required for stable back switching to the original “up” state does not exhibit this thickness dependence. This behavior is consistent with the presence of an internal frozen defect field. The inhibition of domain nucleation above PE interfaces, observed in this study, is a phenomenon that occurs in Mg:LN but not in undoped samples and is mainly ascribed to a remaining frozen polarization in the PE phase that opposes polarization reversal. This reduced frozen depolarization field in the PE phase also influences the depolarization field of the Mg:LN layer above due to the presence of uncompensated polarization charge at the PE-Mg:LN boundary. These alterations in internal electric fields within the sample cause long-range lattice distortions in Mg:LN via electromechanical coupling, which were corroborated with complimentary Raman measurements.« less
  • Cited by 4
  • Controlling ferroelectric switching in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg: LN) is of fundamental importance for optical device and domain wall electronics applications that require precise domain patterns. Stable ferroelectric switching has been previously observed in undoped LN layers above proton exchanged (PE) phases that exhibit reduced polarization, whereas PE layers have been found to inhibit lateral domain growth. Here, Mg doping, which is known to significantly alter ferroelectric switching properties including coercive field and switching currents, is shown to inhibit domain nucleation and stability in Mg: LN above buried PE phases that allow for precise ferroelectric patterning via domain growthmore » control. Furthermore, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and switching spectroscopy PFM reveal that the voltage at which polarization switches from the "up" to the "down" state increases with increasing thickness in pure Mg: LN, whereas the voltage required for stable back switching to the original "up" state does not exhibit this thickness dependence. This behavior is consistent with the presence of an internal frozen defect field. The inhibition of domain nucleation above PE interfaces, observed in this study, is a phenomenon that occurs in Mg: LN but not in undoped samples and is mainly ascribed to a remaining frozen polarization in the PE phase that opposes polarization reversal. This reduced frozen depolarization field in the PE phase also influences the depolarization field of the Mg: LN layer above due to the presence of uncompensated polarization charge at the PE-Mg: LN boundary. Furthermore, these alterations in internal electric fields within the sample cause long-range lattice distortions in Mg: LN via electromechanical coupling, which were corroborated with complimentary Raman measurements.« less
  • Periodical domain structuring by focused electron beam irradiation of MgO-doped lithium niobate (MgOCLN) single crystalline plate covered by resist layer was studied both experimentally and by computer simulation. The dependences of domain size on the charge dose and distance between isolated domains were measured. It has been shown that the quality of periodical domain pattern depends on the thickness of resist layer and electron energy. The experimentally obtained periodic domain structures have been divided into four types. The irradiation parameters for the most uniform patterning were obtained experimentally. It was shown by computer simulation that the space charge slightly touchingmore » the crystal surface produced the maximum value of electric field at the resist/LN interface thus resulting in the best pattern quality. The obtained knowledge allowed us to optimize the poling process and to make the periodical domain patterns in 1-mm-thick wafers with an area up to 1 × 5 mm{sup 2} and a period of 6.89 μm for green light second harmonic generation. Spatial distribution of the efficiency of light frequency conversion confirmed the high homogeneity of the tailored domain patterns.« less
  • Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarizationmore » as well as atmospheric conditions. In addition, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. Polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, demonstrates the rectifying ability of Mg:LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity.« less