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Title: CLASH: COMPLETE LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST COSMIC LENS MACS J0717.5+3745 AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES

Abstract

The galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55) is the largest known cosmic lens, with complex internal structures seen in deep X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and dynamical observations. We perform a combined weak- and strong-lensing analysis with wide-field BVR{sub c} i'z' Subaru/Suprime-Cam observations and 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. We find consistent weak distortion and magnification measurements of background galaxies and combine these signals to construct an optimally estimated radial mass profile of the cluster and its surrounding large-scale structure out to 5 Mpc h {sup –1}. We find consistency between strong-lensing and weak-lensing in the region where these independent data overlap, <500 kpc h {sup –1}. The two-dimensional weak-lensing map reveals a clear filamentary structure traced by distinct mass halos. We model the lensing shear field with nine halos, including the main cluster, corresponding to mass peaks detected above 2.5σ{sub κ}. The total mass of the cluster as determined by the different methods is M{sub vir} ≈ (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 15} M{sub ☉}. Although this is the most massive cluster known at z > 0.5, in terms of extreme value statistics, we conclude that the massmore » of MACS J0717.5+3745 by itself is not in serious tension with ΛCDM, representing only a ∼2σ departure above the maximum simulated halo mass at this redshift.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]; ;  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7]; ;  [8]; ;  [9]; ; ;  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13] more »; « less
  1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
  2. Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)
  3. INAF/Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)
  4. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, MS 169-327, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
  5. Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
  6. Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, P.O. Box 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain)
  7. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)
  8. Division of Physics, Math, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  9. Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universit'a di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)
  10. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21208 (United States)
  11. Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain)
  12. Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics and Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)
  13. Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22270661
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 777; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COSMOLOGY; GALAXIES; GALAXY CLUSTERS; GRAVITATIONAL LENSES; MASS; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; RED SHIFT; TELESCOPES; TWO-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Medezinski, Elinor, Lemze, Doron, Ford, Holland, Umetsu, Keiichi, Nonino, Mario, Merten, Julian, Mroczkowski, Tony, Zitrin, Adi, Broadhurst, Tom, Donahue, Megan, Sayers, Jack, Czakon, Nicole, Waizmann, Jean-Claude, Meneghetti, Massimo, Koekemoer, Anton, Coe, Dan, Postman, Marc, Molino, Alberto, Melchior, Peter, Grillo, Claudio, E-mail: elinor@pha.jhu.edu, and and others. CLASH: COMPLETE LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST COSMIC LENS MACS J0717.5+3745 AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/43.
Medezinski, Elinor, Lemze, Doron, Ford, Holland, Umetsu, Keiichi, Nonino, Mario, Merten, Julian, Mroczkowski, Tony, Zitrin, Adi, Broadhurst, Tom, Donahue, Megan, Sayers, Jack, Czakon, Nicole, Waizmann, Jean-Claude, Meneghetti, Massimo, Koekemoer, Anton, Coe, Dan, Postman, Marc, Molino, Alberto, Melchior, Peter, Grillo, Claudio, E-mail: elinor@pha.jhu.edu, & and others. CLASH: COMPLETE LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST COSMIC LENS MACS J0717.5+3745 AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/43.
Medezinski, Elinor, Lemze, Doron, Ford, Holland, Umetsu, Keiichi, Nonino, Mario, Merten, Julian, Mroczkowski, Tony, Zitrin, Adi, Broadhurst, Tom, Donahue, Megan, Sayers, Jack, Czakon, Nicole, Waizmann, Jean-Claude, Meneghetti, Massimo, Koekemoer, Anton, Coe, Dan, Postman, Marc, Molino, Alberto, Melchior, Peter, Grillo, Claudio, E-mail: elinor@pha.jhu.edu, and and others. Fri . "CLASH: COMPLETE LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST COSMIC LENS MACS J0717.5+3745 AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/43.
@article{osti_22270661,
title = {CLASH: COMPLETE LENSING ANALYSIS OF THE LARGEST COSMIC LENS MACS J0717.5+3745 AND SURROUNDING STRUCTURES},
author = {Medezinski, Elinor and Lemze, Doron and Ford, Holland and Umetsu, Keiichi and Nonino, Mario and Merten, Julian and Mroczkowski, Tony and Zitrin, Adi and Broadhurst, Tom and Donahue, Megan and Sayers, Jack and Czakon, Nicole and Waizmann, Jean-Claude and Meneghetti, Massimo and Koekemoer, Anton and Coe, Dan and Postman, Marc and Molino, Alberto and Melchior, Peter and Grillo, Claudio, E-mail: elinor@pha.jhu.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {The galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.55) is the largest known cosmic lens, with complex internal structures seen in deep X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and dynamical observations. We perform a combined weak- and strong-lensing analysis with wide-field BVR{sub c} i'z' Subaru/Suprime-Cam observations and 16-band Hubble Space Telescope observations taken as part of the Cluster Lensing And Supernova survey with Hubble. We find consistent weak distortion and magnification measurements of background galaxies and combine these signals to construct an optimally estimated radial mass profile of the cluster and its surrounding large-scale structure out to 5 Mpc h {sup –1}. We find consistency between strong-lensing and weak-lensing in the region where these independent data overlap, <500 kpc h {sup –1}. The two-dimensional weak-lensing map reveals a clear filamentary structure traced by distinct mass halos. We model the lensing shear field with nine halos, including the main cluster, corresponding to mass peaks detected above 2.5σ{sub κ}. The total mass of the cluster as determined by the different methods is M{sub vir} ≈ (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 15} M{sub ☉}. Although this is the most massive cluster known at z > 0.5, in terms of extreme value statistics, we conclude that the mass of MACS J0717.5+3745 by itself is not in serious tension with ΛCDM, representing only a ∼2σ departure above the maximum simulated halo mass at this redshift.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/777/1/43},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 777,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Fri Nov 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}
  • We identify 13 sets of multiply-lensed galaxies around MACS J0717.5+3745 (z = 0.546), outlining a very large tangential critical curve of major axis approx2.'8, filling the field of the Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys. The equivalent circular Einstein radius is theta {sub e} = 55'' +- 3'' (at an estimated source redshift of z{sub s} approx 2.5), corresponding to r{sub e} approx = 350 +- 20 kpc at the cluster redshift, nearly three times greater than that of A1689 (r{sub e} approx = 140 kpc for z{sub s} = 2.5). The mass enclosed by this critical curve is verymore » large, 7.4 +- 0.5 x 10{sup 14} M {sub sun} and only weakly model dependent, with a relatively shallow mass profile within r < 250 kpc, reflecting the unrelaxed appearance of this cluster. This shallow profile generates a much higher level of magnification than the well-known relaxed lensing clusters of higher concentration, so that the area of sky exceeding a magnification of >10 times, is approx =3.5square' for sources with z approx = 8, making MACS J0717.5+3745 a compelling target for accessing faint objects at high redshift. We calculate that only one such cluster, with theta {sub e} >= 55'', is predicted within approx10{sup 7} Universes with z >= 0.55, corresponding to a virial mass >=3 x 10{sup 15} M {sub sun}, for the standard LAMBDACDM (WMAP5 parameters with 2sigma uncertainties).« less
  • We present 90, 140, and 268 GHz subarcminute resolution imaging of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) in the disturbed, intermediate-redshift (z 0.5458) galaxy cluster MACS J0717.5+3745, a triple-merger system comprising four distinct, optically detected subclusters. Our 90 GHz SZE data result in a sensitive, 34 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} map of the SZE at 13'' effective resolution using the MUSTANG bolometer array on the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Our 140 and 268 GHz SZE imaging, with resolutions of 58'' and 31'' and sensitivities of 1.8 and 3.3 mJy beam{sup -1}, respectively, was obtained through observations from the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory using Bolocam.more » We compare these maps to a two-dimensional pressure map derived from Chandra X-ray observations. Our MUSTANG SZE data confirm previous indications from Chandra of a pressure enhancement due to shock-heated, {approx}> 20 keV gas immediately adjacent to extended radio emission seen in low-frequency radio maps of this cluster. MUSTANG also detects pressure substructure that is not well constrained by the Chandra X-ray data in the remnant core of a merging subcluster. We find that the small-scale pressure enhancements in the MUSTANG data amount to {approx}2% of the total pressure measured in the 140 GHz Bolocam observations. The X-ray inferred pseudo-pressure template also fails on larger scales to accurately describe the Bolocam data, particularly at the location of the subcluster with a remnant core known to have a high line-of-sight optical velocity of {approx}3200 km s{sup -1}. Our Bolocam data are adequately described when we add an additional component-not described by a thermal SZE spectrum-to the X-ray template coincident with this subcluster. Using flux densities extracted from our model fits, and marginalizing over the X-ray spectroscopic temperature constraints for the region, we fit a thermal + kinetic SZE spectrum to our Bolocam data and find that the subcluster has a best-fit line-of-sight proper velocity v{sub z} 3600{sup +3440}{sub -{sub 2160}} km s{sup -1}, in agreement with the optical velocity estimates for the subcluster. The probability v{sub z} {<=} 0 given our measurements is 2.1%. Repeating this analysis using flux densities measured directly from our maps results in a 3.4% probability v{sub z} {<=} 0. We note that this tantalizing result for the kinetic SZE is on resolved, subcluster scales.« less
  • We report our analysis of MACS J0717.5+3745 using 140 and 268 GHz Bolocam data collected at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. We detect extended Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect signal at high significance in both Bolocam bands, and we employ Herschel-SPIRE observations to subtract the signal from dusty background galaxies in the 268 GHz data. We constrain the two-band SZ surface brightness toward two of the sub-clusters of MACS J0717.5+3745: the main sub-cluster (named C), and a sub-cluster identified in spectroscopic optical data to have a line-of-sight velocity of +3200 km s{sup –1} (named B). We determine the surface brightness in two separatemore » ways: via fits of parametric models and via direct integration of the images. For both sub-clusters, we find consistent surface brightnesses from both analysis methods. We constrain spectral templates consisting of relativistically corrected thermal and kinetic SZ signals, using a jointly-derived electron temperature from Chandra and XMM-Newton under the assumption that each sub-cluster is isothermal. The data show no evidence for a kinetic SZ signal toward sub-cluster C, but they do indicate a significant kinetic SZ signal toward sub-cluster B. The model-derived surface brightnesses for sub-cluster B yield a best-fit, line-of-sight velocity of v{sub z} = +3450 ± 900 km s{sup –1}, with (1 – Prob[v{sub z} ≥ 0]) = 1.3 × 10{sup –5} (4.2σ away from 0 for a Gaussian distribution). The directly integrated sub-cluster B SZ surface brightnesses provide a best-fit v{sub z} = +2550 ± 1050 km s{sup –1}, with (1 – Prob[v{sub z} ≥ 0]) = 2.2 × 10{sup –3} (2.9σ).« less
  • To investigate the relationship between thermal and non-thermal components in merger galaxy clusters, we present deep JVLA and Chandra observations of the HST Frontier Fields cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. The Chandra image shows a complex merger event, with at least four components belonging to different merging subclusters. Northwest of the cluster, ∼0.7 Mpc from the center, there is a ram-pressure-stripped core that appears to have traversed the densest parts of the cluster after entering the intracluster medium (ICM) from the direction of a galaxy filament to the southeast. We detect a density discontinuity north-northeast of this core, which we speculate ismore » associated with a cold front. Our radio images reveal new details for the complex radio relic and radio halo in this cluster. In addition, we discover several new filamentary radio sources with sizes of 100–300 kpc. A few of these seem to be connected to the main radio relic, while others are either embedded within the radio halo or projected onto it. A narrow-angled-tailed (NAT) radio galaxy, a cluster member, is located at the center of the radio relic. The steep spectrum tails of this active galactic nucleus lead into the large radio relic where the radio spectrum flattens again. This morphological connection between the NAT radio galaxy and relic provides evidence for re-acceleration (revival) of fossil electrons. The presence of hot ≳20 keV ICM gas detected by Chandra near the relic location provides additional support for this re-acceleration scenario.« less
  • We report on high-resolution JVLA and Chandra observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Frontier Cluster MACS J0717.5+3745. MACS J0717.5+3745 offers the largest contiguous magnified area of any known cluster, making it a promising target to search for lensed radio and X-ray sources. With the high-resolution 1.0–6.5 GHz JVLA imaging in A and B configuration, we detect a total of 51 compact radio sources within the area covered by the HST imaging. Within this sample, we find seven lensed sources with amplification factors larger than two. None of these sources are identified as multiply lensed. Based on the radio luminosities,more » the majority of these sources are likely star-forming galaxies with star-formation rates (SFRs) of 10–50 M yr -1 located at 1≲ z ≲ 2. Two of the lensed radio sources are also detected in the Chandra image of the cluster. These two sources are likely active galactic nuclei, given their 2–10 keV X-ray luminosities of ~ 10 43-44 erg s -1. From the derived radio luminosity function, we find evidence for an increase in the number density of radio sources at 0.6 < z < 2.0, compared to a z < 0.3 sample. Lastly, our observations indicate that deep radio imaging of lensing clusters can be used to study star-forming galaxies, with SFRs as low as ~10M yr -1, at the peak of cosmic star formation history.« less