Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers
Abstract
Quantum cascade lasers are unipolar semiconductor lasers covering a wide range of the infrared and terahertz spectrum. Lasing action is achieved by using optical intersubband transitions between quantized states in specifically designed multiplequantumwell heterostructures. A systematic improvement of quantum cascade lasers with respect to operating temperature, efficiency, and spectral range requires detailed modeling of the underlying physical processes in these structures. Moreover, the quantum cascade laser constitutes a versatile model device for the development and improvement of simulation techniques in nano and optoelectronics. This review provides a comprehensive survey and discussion of the modeling techniques used for the simulation of quantum cascade lasers. The main focus is on the modeling of carrier transport in the nanostructured gain medium, while the simulation of the optical cavity is covered at a more basic level. Specifically, the transfer matrix and finite difference methods for solving the onedimensional Schrödinger equation and SchrödingerPoisson system are discussed, providing the quantized states in the multiplequantumwell active region. The modeling of the optical cavity is covered with a focus on basic waveguide resonator structures. Furthermore, various carrier transport simulation methods are discussed, ranging from basic empirical approaches to advanced selfconsistent techniques. The methods include empirical rate equation andmore »
 Authors:

 Institute for Nanoelectronics, Technische Universität München, D80333 Munich (Germany)
 Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue University, 207 S Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
 Publication Date:
 OSTI Identifier:
 22269555
 Resource Type:
 Journal Article
 Journal Name:
 Applied Physics Reviews
 Additional Journal Information:
 Journal Volume: 1; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 19319401
 Country of Publication:
 United States
 Language:
 English
 Subject:
 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; BLOCH EQUATIONS; DENSITY MATRIX; EFFICIENCY; FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD; GREEN FUNCTION; MONTE CARLO METHOD; QUANTUM WELLS; REACTION KINETICS; RESONATORS; SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS; SIMULATION
Citation Formats
Jirauschek, Christian, and Kubis, Tillmann. Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers. United States: N. p., 2014.
Web. doi:10.1063/1.4863665.
Jirauschek, Christian, & Kubis, Tillmann. Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4863665.
Jirauschek, Christian, and Kubis, Tillmann. Sat .
"Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4863665.
@article{osti_22269555,
title = {Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers},
author = {Jirauschek, Christian and Kubis, Tillmann},
abstractNote = {Quantum cascade lasers are unipolar semiconductor lasers covering a wide range of the infrared and terahertz spectrum. Lasing action is achieved by using optical intersubband transitions between quantized states in specifically designed multiplequantumwell heterostructures. A systematic improvement of quantum cascade lasers with respect to operating temperature, efficiency, and spectral range requires detailed modeling of the underlying physical processes in these structures. Moreover, the quantum cascade laser constitutes a versatile model device for the development and improvement of simulation techniques in nano and optoelectronics. This review provides a comprehensive survey and discussion of the modeling techniques used for the simulation of quantum cascade lasers. The main focus is on the modeling of carrier transport in the nanostructured gain medium, while the simulation of the optical cavity is covered at a more basic level. Specifically, the transfer matrix and finite difference methods for solving the onedimensional Schrödinger equation and SchrödingerPoisson system are discussed, providing the quantized states in the multiplequantumwell active region. The modeling of the optical cavity is covered with a focus on basic waveguide resonator structures. Furthermore, various carrier transport simulation methods are discussed, ranging from basic empirical approaches to advanced selfconsistent techniques. The methods include empirical rate equation and related MaxwellBloch equation approaches, selfconsistent rate equation and ensemble Monte Carlo methods, as well as quantum transport approaches, in particular the density matrix and nonequilibrium Green's function formalism. The derived scattering rates and selfenergies are generally valid for ntype devices based on onedimensional quantum confinement, such as quantum well structures.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4863665},
journal = {Applied Physics Reviews},
issn = {19319401},
number = 1,
volume = 1,
place = {United States},
year = {2014},
month = {3}
}