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Title: Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector

Abstract

We demonstrate an InAs quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector operating at room temperature with a peak detection wavelength of 4.3 μm. The detector shows sensitive photoresponse for normal-incidence light, which is attributed to an intraband transition of the quantum dots and the following transfer of excited electrons on a cascade of quantum levels. The InAs quantum dots for the infrared absorption were formed by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode and two-step strain-compensation design based on InAs/GaAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure, while the following extraction quantum stairs formed by LO-phonon energy are based on a strain-compensated InGaAs/InAlAs chirped superlattice. Johnson noise limited detectivities of 3.64 × 10{sup 11} and 4.83 × 10{sup 6} Jones at zero bias were obtained at 80 K and room temperature, respectively. Due to the low dark current and distinct photoresponse up to room temperature, this device can form high temperature imaging.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Semiconductor Materials and Devices, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22267739
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 104; Journal Issue: 17; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ENERGY-LEVEL TRANSITIONS; GALLIUM ARSENIDES; INDIUM ARSENIDES; PHONONS; QUANTUM DOTS; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K

Citation Formats

Wang, Xue-Jiao, Zhai, Shen-Qiang, Zhuo, Ning, Liu, Jun-Qi, E-mail: jqliu@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn, Liu, Feng-Qi, E-mail: jqliu@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn, Liu, Shu-Man, and Wang, Zhan-Guo. Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4874802.
Wang, Xue-Jiao, Zhai, Shen-Qiang, Zhuo, Ning, Liu, Jun-Qi, E-mail: jqliu@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn, Liu, Feng-Qi, E-mail: jqliu@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn, Liu, Shu-Man, & Wang, Zhan-Guo. Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4874802.
Wang, Xue-Jiao, Zhai, Shen-Qiang, Zhuo, Ning, Liu, Jun-Qi, E-mail: jqliu@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn, Liu, Feng-Qi, E-mail: jqliu@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn, Liu, Shu-Man, and Wang, Zhan-Guo. Mon . "Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4874802.
@article{osti_22267739,
title = {Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector},
author = {Wang, Xue-Jiao and Zhai, Shen-Qiang and Zhuo, Ning and Liu, Jun-Qi, E-mail: jqliu@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn and Liu, Feng-Qi, E-mail: jqliu@semi.ac.cn, E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn and Liu, Shu-Man and Wang, Zhan-Guo},
abstractNote = {We demonstrate an InAs quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector operating at room temperature with a peak detection wavelength of 4.3 μm. The detector shows sensitive photoresponse for normal-incidence light, which is attributed to an intraband transition of the quantum dots and the following transfer of excited electrons on a cascade of quantum levels. The InAs quantum dots for the infrared absorption were formed by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode and two-step strain-compensation design based on InAs/GaAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure, while the following extraction quantum stairs formed by LO-phonon energy are based on a strain-compensated InGaAs/InAlAs chirped superlattice. Johnson noise limited detectivities of 3.64 × 10{sup 11} and 4.83 × 10{sup 6} Jones at zero bias were obtained at 80 K and room temperature, respectively. Due to the low dark current and distinct photoresponse up to room temperature, this device can form high temperature imaging.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4874802},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 17,
volume = 104,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 28 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Apr 28 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • We demonstrate a quantum dot quantum cascade photodetector with a hybrid active region of InAs quantum dots and an InGaAs quantum well, which exhibited a temperature independent response at 4.5 μm. The normal incident responsivity reached 10.3 mA/W at 120 K and maintained a value of 9 mA/W up to 260 K. It exhibited a specific detectivity above 10{sup 11} cm Hz{sup 1/2} W{sup −1} at 77 K, which remained at 10{sup 8} cm Hz{sup 1/2} W{sup −1} at 260 K. We ascribe the device's good thermal stability of infrared response to the three-dimensional quantum confinement of the InAs quantum dots incorporated in the active region.
  • Highlights: ► We investigated the effect of ex situ annealing on InGaAs/GaAs QDIP with InAlGaAs layer. ► As-grown defect was removed by using post-growth annealing treatment. ► Increase in the compressive strain due to annealing is calculated from XRD curve. ► Three-fold enhancement in responsivity is observed in the QDIPs annealed at 650 °C. ► Two-fold enhancement in D* is observed sample annealed at 650 °C compared to as grown. -- Abstract: The effect of post-growth rapid thermal annealing on 35-layer In{sub 0.50}Ga{sub 0.50}As/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) with quaternary In{sub 0.21}Al{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.58}As capping has been investigated. Transmissionmore » electron microscopy showed some as-grown defects were removed by post growth annealing treatment. An increase in the compressive strain in the heterostructure due to annealing was identified from X-ray diffraction curve. A two-color photoresponse in the long-wave region (8.5 and 10.2 μm) was observed in both as-grown device and those annealed at 650 °C temperature. A three-fold enhancement in peak responsivity was observed in the QDIPs annealed at 650 °C (1.19 A/W) compared to that in the as-grown (0.34 A/W). Detectivity also increased by two fold from as-grown to 650 °C annealed device. The changes are attributed to the removal of as-grown defects and dislocations during epitaxial growth. These removals changed the confinement potential profile, which resulted in an improvement in the detectivity and responsivity of the annealed sample.« less
  • An InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) based on p-type valence-band intersublevel hole transitions as opposed to conventional electron transitions is reported. Two response bands observed at 1.5–3 and 3–10 μm are due to transitions from the heavy-hole to spin-orbit split-off QD level and from the heavy-hole to heavy-hole level, respectively. Without employing optimized structures (e.g., the dark current blocking layer), the demonstrated QDIP displays promising characteristics, including a specific detectivity of 1.8×10{sup 9} cm·Hz{sup 1/2}/W and a quantum efficiency of 17%, which is about 5% higher than that of present n-type QDIPs. This study shows the promise of utilizing holemore » transitions for developing QDIPs.« less
  • The well in the quantum dot stack infrared photodetector (WD-QDIP) is proposed which can be operated at high temperature ∼230 K. The operation principle of this device is investigated, including the carrier transport and the enhancement in the photocurrent. The WD-QDIPs with different well numbers are fabricated to study the mechanisms. It is realized that the carrier transport from the emitter to the collector in traditional quantum dot infrared photodetectors consists of two channels deduced from current-voltage characteristics and dark current activation energy at different temperatures. At temperatures below 77 K, the current transports through the InAs quantum dot channel, whereas atmore » temperatures higher than 77 K, the current is dominated by the GaAs leakage channel. In addition, the non-equilibrium situation at low temperatures is also observed owing to the presence of photovoltaic phenomenon. The carrier distribution inside the QDs is simulated to investigate the reasons for the increase of photocurrent. Based on the simulation and the photocurrent response, the hot carrier (electron) scattering effect by the insertion of a quantum well layer is inferred as the most probable reason that lead to the enhancement of the response and regarded as the key factor to achieve high- temperature operation.« less
  • In the framework of a microscopic model for intersubband gain from electrically pumped quantum-dot structures we investigate electrically pumped quantum-dots as active material for a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser. Our previous calculations have indicated that these structures could operate with reduced threshold current densities while also achieving a modal gain comparable to that of quantum well active materials. We study the influence of two important quantum-dot material parameters, here, namely inhomogeneous broadening and quantum-dot sheet density, on the performance of a proposed quantum cascade laser design. In terms of achieving a positive modal net gain, a high quantum-dot density canmore » compensate for moderately high inhomogeneous broadening, but at a cost of increased threshold current density. By minimizing quantum-dot density with presently achievable inhomogeneous broadening and total losses, significantly lower threshold densities than those reported in quantum-well quantum-cascade lasers are predicted by our theory.« less