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Title: Suppression of human T cell proliferation by the caspase inhibitors, z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK is independent of their caspase inhibition properties

Abstract

The caspase inhibitors, benzyloxycarbony (Cbz)-l-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz)-Ile-Glu (OMe)-Thr-Asp (OMe)-FMK (z-IETD-FMK) at non-toxic doses were found to be immunosuppressive and inhibit human T cell proliferation induced by mitogens and IL-2 in vitro. Both caspase inhibitors were shown to block NF-κB in activated primary T cells, but have little inhibitory effect on the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ during T cell activation. However, the expression of IL-2 receptor α-chain (CD25) in activated T cells was inhibited by both z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK, whereas the expression of the early activated T cell marker, CD69 was unaffected. During primary T cell activation via the antigen receptor, both caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated and processed to their respective subunits, but neither caspase inhibitors had any effect on the processing of these two caspases. In sharp contrast both caspase inhibitors readily blocked apoptosis and the activation of caspases during FasL-induced apoptosis in activated primary T cells and Jurkat T cells. Collectively, the results demonstrate that both z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK are immunosuppressive in vitro and inhibit T cell proliferation without blocking the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3. -- Highlights: ► Caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during T cell activation and proliferation. ► T cell proliferationmore » was blocked by caspase inhibitors. ► Caspase activation during T cell proliferation was not block by caspase inhibitors.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. Medical Research Council Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building, Lancaster Road, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN (United Kingdom)
  2. School of Science, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, 46150 Selangor Darul Ehsan (Malaysia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22215979
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 265; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANTIGENS; APOPTOSIS; CELL PROLIFERATION; IN VITRO; INHIBITION; LYMPHOCYTES; MITOGENS; RECEPTORS; SECRETION; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Lawrence, C.P., and Chow, S.C., E-mail: chow.sek.chuen@monash.edu. Suppression of human T cell proliferation by the caspase inhibitors, z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK is independent of their caspase inhibition properties. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2012.09.002.
Lawrence, C.P., & Chow, S.C., E-mail: chow.sek.chuen@monash.edu. Suppression of human T cell proliferation by the caspase inhibitors, z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK is independent of their caspase inhibition properties. United States. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2012.09.002.
Lawrence, C.P., and Chow, S.C., E-mail: chow.sek.chuen@monash.edu. 2012. "Suppression of human T cell proliferation by the caspase inhibitors, z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK is independent of their caspase inhibition properties". United States. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2012.09.002.
@article{osti_22215979,
title = {Suppression of human T cell proliferation by the caspase inhibitors, z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK is independent of their caspase inhibition properties},
author = {Lawrence, C.P. and Chow, S.C., E-mail: chow.sek.chuen@monash.edu},
abstractNote = {The caspase inhibitors, benzyloxycarbony (Cbz)-l-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) and benzyloxycarbonyl (Cbz)-Ile-Glu (OMe)-Thr-Asp (OMe)-FMK (z-IETD-FMK) at non-toxic doses were found to be immunosuppressive and inhibit human T cell proliferation induced by mitogens and IL-2 in vitro. Both caspase inhibitors were shown to block NF-κB in activated primary T cells, but have little inhibitory effect on the secretion of IL-2 and IFN-γ during T cell activation. However, the expression of IL-2 receptor α-chain (CD25) in activated T cells was inhibited by both z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK, whereas the expression of the early activated T cell marker, CD69 was unaffected. During primary T cell activation via the antigen receptor, both caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated and processed to their respective subunits, but neither caspase inhibitors had any effect on the processing of these two caspases. In sharp contrast both caspase inhibitors readily blocked apoptosis and the activation of caspases during FasL-induced apoptosis in activated primary T cells and Jurkat T cells. Collectively, the results demonstrate that both z-VAD-FMK and z-IETD-FMK are immunosuppressive in vitro and inhibit T cell proliferation without blocking the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3. -- Highlights: ► Caspase-8 and caspase-3 were activated during T cell activation and proliferation. ► T cell proliferation was blocked by caspase inhibitors. ► Caspase activation during T cell proliferation was not block by caspase inhibitors.},
doi = {10.1016/J.TAAP.2012.09.002},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 1,
volume = 265,
place = {United States},
year = 2012,
month =
}
  • The caspase inhibitor benzyloxycarbony (Cbz)-L-Val-Ala-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethylketone (z-VAD-FMK) has recently been shown to inhibit T cell proliferation without blocking caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation in primary T cells. We showed in this study that z-VAD-FMK treatment leads to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH) with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in activated T cells. The inhibition of anti-CD3-mediated T cell proliferation induced by z-VAD-FMK was abolished by the presence of low molecular weight thiols such as GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and L-cysteine, whereas D-cysteine which cannot be metabolised to GSH has no effect. These results suggest that the depletionmore » of intracellular GSH is the underlying cause of z-VAD-FMK-mediated inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation. The presence of exogenous GSH also attenuated the inhibition of anti-CD3-induced CD25 and CD69 expression mediated by z-VAD-FMK. However, none of the low molecular weight thiols were able to restore the caspase-inhibitory properties of z-VAD-FMK in activated T cells where caspase-8 and caspase-3 remain activated and processed into their respective subunits in the presence of the caspase inhibitor. This suggests that the inhibition of T cell proliferation can be uncoupled from the caspase-inhibitory properties of z-VAD-FMK. Taken together, the immunosuppressive effects in primary T cells mediated by z-VAD-FMK are due to oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH.« less
  • Because of their central role in programmed cell death, the caspases are attractive targets for developing new therapeutics against cancer and autoimmunity, myocardial infarction and ischemic damage, and neurodegenerative diseases. We chose to target caspase-3, an executioner caspase, and caspase-8, an initiator caspase, based on the vast amount of information linking their functions to diseases. Through a structure-based drug design approach, a number of novel {beta}-strand peptidomimetic compounds were synthesized. Kinetic studies of caspase-3 and caspase-8 inhibition were carried out with these urazole ring-containing irreversible peptidomimetics and a known irreversible caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-fmk. Using a stopped-flow fluorescence assay, we weremore » able to determine individual kinetic parameters of caspase-3 and caspase-8 inhibition by these inhibitors. Z-VAD-fmk and the peptidomimetic inhibitors inhibit caspase-3 and caspase-8 via a three-step kinetic mechanism. Inhibition of both caspase-3 and caspase-8 by Z-VAD-fmk and of caspase-3 by the peptidomimetic inhibitors proceeds via two rapid equilibrium steps followed by a relatively fast inactivation step. However, caspase-8 inhibition by the peptidomimetics goes through a rapid equilibrium step, a slow-binding reversible step, and an extremely slow inactivation step. The crystal structures of inhibitor complexes of caspases-3 and -8 validate the design of the inhibitors by illustrating in detail how they mimic peptide substrates. One of the caspase-8 structures also shows binding at a secondary, allosteric site, providing a possible route to the development of noncovalent small molecule modulators of caspase activity.« less
  • Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)more » in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.« less
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  • The synthetic retinoid-related molecule CD437-induced apoptosis in human epithelial airway respiratory cells: the 16HBE bronchial cell line and normal nasal epithelial cells. CD437 caused apoptosis in S-phase cells and cell cycle arrest in S phase. Apoptosis was abolished by caspase-8 inhibitor z-IETD-fmk which preserved S-phase cells but was weakly inhibited by others selective caspase-inhibitors, indicating that caspase-8 activation was involved. z-VAD and z-IETD prevented the nuclear envelope fragmentation but did not block the chromatin condensation. The disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential was also induced by CD437 treatment. The translocation of Bax to mitochondria was demonstrated, as well as the releasemore » of cytochrome c into the cytosol and of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocated into the nucleus. z-VAD and z-IETD did not inhibit mitochondrial depolarization, Bax translocation or release of cytochrome c and AIF from mitochondria. These results suggest that CD437-induced apoptosis is executed by two converging pathways. AIF release is responsible for chromatin condensation, the first stage of apoptotic cell, via a mitochondrial pathway independent of caspase. But final stage of apoptosis requires the caspase-8-dependent nuclear envelope fragmentation. In addition, using SP600125, JNK inhibitor, we demonstrated that CD437 activates the JNK-MAP kinase signaling pathway upstream to mitochondrial and caspase-8 pathways. Conversely, JNK pathway inhibition, which suppresses S-phase apoptosis, did not prevent cell cycle arrest within S phase, confirming that these processes are triggered by distinct mechanisms.« less