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Title: Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes osteoclast differentiation and is facilitated by the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir

Abstract

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First demonstration of direct role for noncanonical Wnt in osteoclast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of Ryk as a Wnt5a/b receptor in inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modulation of noncanonical Wnt signaling by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Establishes a mechanism for an important clinical problem: HIV-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Wnt proteins that signal via the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway directly regulate osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, most studies of Wnt-related effects on osteoclasts involve indirect changes. While investigating bone mineral density loss in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment with the protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV), we observed that RTV decreased nuclear localization of {beta}-catenin, critical to canonical Wnt signaling, in primary human and murine osteoclast precursors. This occurred in parallel with upregulation of Wnt5a and Wnt5b transcripts. These Wnts typically stimulate noncanonical Wnt signaling, and this can antagonize the canonical Wnt pathway in many cell types, dependent upon Wnt receptor usage. We now document RTV-mediated upregulation of Wnt5a/b protein in osteoclast precursors. Recombinant Wnt5b and retrovirus-mediated expression of Wnt5a enhanced osteoclast differentiation from human and murine monocytic precursors, processes facilitated by RTV. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling mediated by Wnt3a suppressed osteoclastogenesis. Bothmore » RTV and Wnt5b inhibited canonical, {beta}-catenin/T cell factor-based Wnt reporter activation in osteoclast precursors. RTV- and Wnt5-induced osteoclast differentiation were dependent upon the receptor-like tyrosine kinase Ryk, suggesting that Ryk may act as a Wnt5a/b receptor in this context. This is the first demonstration of a direct role for Wnt signaling pathways and Ryk in regulation of osteoclast differentiation, and its modulation by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. These studies also reveal a potential role for noncanonical Wnt5a/b signaling in acceleration of bone mineral density loss in HIV-infected individuals, and illuminate a potential means of influencing such processes in disease states that involve enhanced osteoclast activity.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2];  [1]
  1. Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)
  2. Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22207624
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications; Journal Volume: 417; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2011 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; AIDS VIRUS; CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS; DRUGS; INHIBITION; PATHOGENESIS; RECEPTORS; SKELETAL DISEASES; SKELETON; TYROSINE; BONE MINERAL DENSITY

Citation Formats

Santiago, Francisco, Oguma, Junya, Brown, Anthony M.C., and Laurence, Jeffrey, E-mail: jlaurenc@med.cornell.edu. Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes osteoclast differentiation and is facilitated by the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2011.11.089.
Santiago, Francisco, Oguma, Junya, Brown, Anthony M.C., & Laurence, Jeffrey, E-mail: jlaurenc@med.cornell.edu. Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes osteoclast differentiation and is facilitated by the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir. United States. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2011.11.089.
Santiago, Francisco, Oguma, Junya, Brown, Anthony M.C., and Laurence, Jeffrey, E-mail: jlaurenc@med.cornell.edu. 2012. "Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes osteoclast differentiation and is facilitated by the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir". United States. doi:10.1016/J.BBRC.2011.11.089.
@article{osti_22207624,
title = {Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes osteoclast differentiation and is facilitated by the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir},
author = {Santiago, Francisco and Oguma, Junya and Brown, Anthony M.C. and Laurence, Jeffrey, E-mail: jlaurenc@med.cornell.edu},
abstractNote = {Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First demonstration of direct role for noncanonical Wnt in osteoclast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of Ryk as a Wnt5a/b receptor in inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modulation of noncanonical Wnt signaling by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Establishes a mechanism for an important clinical problem: HIV-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Wnt proteins that signal via the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway directly regulate osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, most studies of Wnt-related effects on osteoclasts involve indirect changes. While investigating bone mineral density loss in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment with the protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV), we observed that RTV decreased nuclear localization of {beta}-catenin, critical to canonical Wnt signaling, in primary human and murine osteoclast precursors. This occurred in parallel with upregulation of Wnt5a and Wnt5b transcripts. These Wnts typically stimulate noncanonical Wnt signaling, and this can antagonize the canonical Wnt pathway in many cell types, dependent upon Wnt receptor usage. We now document RTV-mediated upregulation of Wnt5a/b protein in osteoclast precursors. Recombinant Wnt5b and retrovirus-mediated expression of Wnt5a enhanced osteoclast differentiation from human and murine monocytic precursors, processes facilitated by RTV. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling mediated by Wnt3a suppressed osteoclastogenesis. Both RTV and Wnt5b inhibited canonical, {beta}-catenin/T cell factor-based Wnt reporter activation in osteoclast precursors. RTV- and Wnt5-induced osteoclast differentiation were dependent upon the receptor-like tyrosine kinase Ryk, suggesting that Ryk may act as a Wnt5a/b receptor in this context. This is the first demonstration of a direct role for Wnt signaling pathways and Ryk in regulation of osteoclast differentiation, and its modulation by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. These studies also reveal a potential role for noncanonical Wnt5a/b signaling in acceleration of bone mineral density loss in HIV-infected individuals, and illuminate a potential means of influencing such processes in disease states that involve enhanced osteoclast activity.},
doi = {10.1016/J.BBRC.2011.11.089},
journal = {Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications},
number = 1,
volume = 417,
place = {United States},
year = 2012,
month = 1
}
  • We designed, synthesized, and identified GRL-98065, a novel nonpeptidic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) protease inhibitor (PI) containing the structure-based designed privileged cyclic ether-derived nonpeptide P2 ligand, 3(R),3a(S),6a(R)-bis-tetrahydrofuranylurethane (bis-THF), and a sulfonamide isostere, which is highly potent against laboratory HIV-1 strains and primary clinical isolates (50% effective concentration [EC{sub 50}], 0.0002 to 0.0005 {mu}M) with minimal cytotoxicity (50% cytotoxicity, 35.7 {mu}M in CD4{sup +} MT-2 cells). GRL-98065 blocked the infectivity and replication of each of the HIV-1{sub NL4-3} variants exposed to and selected by up to a 5 {mu}M concentration of saquinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, or ritonavir and a 1more » {mu}M concentration of lopinavir or atazanavir (EC{sub 50}, 0.0015 to 0.0075 {mu}M), although it was less active against HIV-1{sub NLV4-3} selected by amprenavir (EC{sub 50}, 0.032 {mu}M). GRL-98065 was also potent against multiple-PI-resistant clinical HIV-1 variants isolated from patients who had no response to existing antiviral regimens after having received a variety of antiviral agents, HIV-1 isolates of various subtypes, and HIV-2 isolates examined. Structural analyses revealed that the close contact of GRL-98065 with the main chain of the protease active-site amino acids (Asp29 and Asp30) is important for its potency and wide-spectrum activity against multiple-PI-resistant HIV-1 variants. The present data demonstrate that the privileged nonpeptide P2 ligand, bis-THF, is critical for the binding of GRL-98065 to the HIV protease substrate binding site and that this scaffold can confer highly potent antiviral activity against a wide spectrum of HIV isolates.« less
  • Darunavir is the most recently approved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease (PR) inhibitor (PI) and is active against many HIV type 1 PR variants resistant to earlier-generation PIs. Darunavir shows a high genetic barrier to resistance development, and virus strains with lower sensitivity to darunavir have a higher number of PI resistance-associated mutations than viruses resistant to other PIs. In this work, we have enzymologically and structurally characterized a number of highly mutated clinically derived PRs with high levels of phenotypic resistance to darunavir. With 18 to 21 amino acid residue changes, the PR variants studied in this work aremore » the most highly mutated HIV PR species ever studied by means of enzyme kinetics and X-ray crystallography. The recombinant proteins showed major defects in substrate binding, while the substrate turnover was less affected. Remarkably, the overall catalytic efficiency of the recombinant PRs (5% that of the wild-type enzyme) is still sufficient to support polyprotein processing and particle maturation in the corresponding viruses. The X-ray structures of drug-resistant PRs complexed with darunavir suggest that the impaired inhibitor binding could be explained by change in the PR-inhibitor hydrogen bond pattern in the P2 binding pocket due to a substantial shift of the aminophenyl moiety of the inhibitor. Recombinant virus phenotypic characterization, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray structural analysis thus help to explain darunavir resistance development in HIV-positive patients.« less
  • While the selection of amino acid insertions in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase (RT) is a known mechanism of resistance against RT inhibitors, very few reports on the selection of insertions in the protease (PR) coding region have been published. It is still unclear whether these insertions impact protease inhibitor (PI) resistance and/or viral replication capacity. We show that the prevalence of insertions, especially between amino acids 30 to 41 of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) PR, has increased in recent years. We identified amino acid insertions at positions 33 and 35 of the PR of HIV-1-infected patients who hadmore » undergone prolonged treatment with PIs, and we characterized the contribution of these insertions to viral resistance. We prepared the corresponding mutated, recombinant PR variants with or without insertions at positions 33 and 35 and characterized them in terms of enzyme kinetics and crystal structures. We also engineered the corresponding recombinant viruses and analyzed the PR susceptibility and replication capacity by recombinant virus assay. Both in vitro methods confirmed that the amino acid insertions at positions 33 and 35 contribute to the viral resistance to most of the tested PIs. The structural analysis revealed local structural rearrangements in the flap region and in the substrate binding pockets. The enlargement of the PR substrate binding site together with impaired flap dynamics could account for the weaker inhibitor binding by the insertion mutants. Amino acid insertions in the vicinity of the binding cleft therefore represent a novel mechanism of HIV resistance development.« less
  • The structure of a crystal complex of the chemically synthesized protease of human immunodeficiency virus 1 with a heptapeptide-derived inhibitor bound in the active site has been determined. The sequence of the inhibitor JG-365 is Ac-Ser-Leu-Asn-Phe-{psi} (CH(OH)CH{sub 2}N)-Pro-Ile-Val-OMe; the K{sub i} is 0.24 nM. The hydroxyethylamine moiety, in place of the normal scissile bond of the substrate, is believed to mimic a tetrahedral reaction intermediate. The structure of the complex has been refined to an R factor of 0.146 at 2.4-{angstrom} resolution by using restrained least squares with rms deviations in bond lengths of 0.02 {angstrom} and bond angles ofmore » 4{degree}. The bound inhibitor diastereomer has the S configuration at the hydroxyethylamine chiral carbon, and the hydroxyl group is positioned between the active site aspartate carboxyl groups within hydrogen bonding distance. Comparison of this structure with a reduced peptide bond inhibitor-protease complex indicates that these contacts confer the exceptional binding strength of JG-365.« less
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