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Title: Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Abstract

Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: This was a matched-pair study. From January 2008 to December 2009, 36 patients with 42 lesions of unresectable recurrent HCC were treated with SBRT. The median prescribed dose was 37 Gy (range, 25 to 48 Gy) in 4-5 fractions over 4-5 consecutive working days. Another 138 patients in the historical control group given other or no treatments were selected for matched analyses. Results: The median follow-up time was 14 months for all patients and 20 months for those alive. The 1- and 2-year in-field failure-free rates were 87.6% and 75.1%, respectively. Out-field intrahepatic recurrence was the main cause of failure. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 64.0%, and median time to progression was 8.0 months. In the multivariable analysis of all 174 patients, SBRT (yes vs. no), tumor size ({<=}4 cm vs. >4 cm), recurrent stage (stage IIIB/IV vs. I) and Child-Pugh classification (A vs. B/C) were independent prognostic factors for OS. Matched-pair analysis revealed that patients undergoing SBRT had better OS (2-year OS of 72.6% vs. 42.1%, respectively, pmore » = 0.013). Acute toxicities were mild and tolerable. Conclusion: SBRT is a safe and efficacious modality and appears to be well-tolerated at the dose fractionation we have used, and its use correlates with improved survival in this cohort of patients with recurrent unresectable HCC. Out-field recurrence is the major cause of failure. Further studies of combinations of SBRT and systemic therapies may be reasonable.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [4]; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)
  2. School of Public Health, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)
  3. Department of Radiation Oncology, Cardinal Tien Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China)
  4. Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22149506
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 84; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CHILDREN; CLASSIFICATION; FAILURES; FRACTIONATED IRRADIATION; GY RANGE 10-100; HEPATOMAS; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Huang, Wen-Yen, Jen, Yee-Min, E-mail: yeeminjen@yahoo.com.tw, Lee, Meei-Shyuan, Chang, Li-Ping, Chen, Chang-Ming, Ko, Kai-Hsiung, Lin, Kuen-Tze, Lin, Jang-Chun, Chao, Hsing-Lung, Lin, Chun-Shu, Su, Yu-Fu, Fan, Chao-Yueh, and Chang, Yao-Wen. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.11.058.
Huang, Wen-Yen, Jen, Yee-Min, E-mail: yeeminjen@yahoo.com.tw, Lee, Meei-Shyuan, Chang, Li-Ping, Chen, Chang-Ming, Ko, Kai-Hsiung, Lin, Kuen-Tze, Lin, Jang-Chun, Chao, Hsing-Lung, Lin, Chun-Shu, Su, Yu-Fu, Fan, Chao-Yueh, & Chang, Yao-Wen. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.11.058.
Huang, Wen-Yen, Jen, Yee-Min, E-mail: yeeminjen@yahoo.com.tw, Lee, Meei-Shyuan, Chang, Li-Ping, Chen, Chang-Ming, Ko, Kai-Hsiung, Lin, Kuen-Tze, Lin, Jang-Chun, Chao, Hsing-Lung, Lin, Chun-Shu, Su, Yu-Fu, Fan, Chao-Yueh, and Chang, Yao-Wen. Mon . "Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.11.058.
@article{osti_22149506,
title = {Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma},
author = {Huang, Wen-Yen and Jen, Yee-Min, E-mail: yeeminjen@yahoo.com.tw and Lee, Meei-Shyuan and Chang, Li-Ping and Chen, Chang-Ming and Ko, Kai-Hsiung and Lin, Kuen-Tze and Lin, Jang-Chun and Chao, Hsing-Lung and Lin, Chun-Shu and Su, Yu-Fu and Fan, Chao-Yueh and Chang, Yao-Wen},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To examine the safety and efficacy of Cyberknife stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and its effect on survival in patients of recurrent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: This was a matched-pair study. From January 2008 to December 2009, 36 patients with 42 lesions of unresectable recurrent HCC were treated with SBRT. The median prescribed dose was 37 Gy (range, 25 to 48 Gy) in 4-5 fractions over 4-5 consecutive working days. Another 138 patients in the historical control group given other or no treatments were selected for matched analyses. Results: The median follow-up time was 14 months for all patients and 20 months for those alive. The 1- and 2-year in-field failure-free rates were 87.6% and 75.1%, respectively. Out-field intrahepatic recurrence was the main cause of failure. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate was 64.0%, and median time to progression was 8.0 months. In the multivariable analysis of all 174 patients, SBRT (yes vs. no), tumor size ({<=}4 cm vs. >4 cm), recurrent stage (stage IIIB/IV vs. I) and Child-Pugh classification (A vs. B/C) were independent prognostic factors for OS. Matched-pair analysis revealed that patients undergoing SBRT had better OS (2-year OS of 72.6% vs. 42.1%, respectively, p = 0.013). Acute toxicities were mild and tolerable. Conclusion: SBRT is a safe and efficacious modality and appears to be well-tolerated at the dose fractionation we have used, and its use correlates with improved survival in this cohort of patients with recurrent unresectable HCC. Out-field recurrence is the major cause of failure. Further studies of combinations of SBRT and systemic therapies may be reasonable.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.11.058},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 2,
volume = 84,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 2012},
month = {Mon Oct 01 00:00:00 EDT 2012}
}
  • Purpose: Focal liver reaction (FLR) appears on radiographic images after stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease. We investigated the threshold dose (TD) of FLR and possible factors affecting the TD on gadoxetate acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: In 50 patients who were treated with SABR for small HCC and followed up by MRI for >6 months, FLR, seen as a hypointense area, was evaluated on the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. The follow-up MRI with the largest extent of FLR was fused to the planning computedmore » tomography (CT) image, and patients with good image fusion concordance were eligible. After delineating the border of the FLR manually, a dose–volume histogram was used to identify the TD for the FLR. Clinical and volumetric factors were analyzed for correlation with the TD. Results: A total of 45 patients were eligible for analysis with a median image fusion concordance of 84.9% (range, 71.6-95.4%). The median duration between SABR and subsequent hepatobiliary phase MRI with the largest extent of FLR was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). The median TD for FLR was 28.0 Gy (range, 22.3-36.4 Gy). On univariate analysis, pre-treatment Child-Pugh (CP) score and platelet count were significantly correlated with the TD. On multiple linear regression analysis, CP score was the only parameter that predicted TD. Median TDs were 30.5 Gy (range, 26.2.3-36.4 Gy) and 25.2 Gy (range, 22.3-27.5 Gy) for patients with CP-A and CP-B disease, respectively. Conclusion: The TD was significantly correlated with baseline liver function. We propose 30 Gy for CP-A disease and 25 Gy for CP-B disease in 5 fractions as TDs for FLR after SABR for patients with HCC and chronic liver disease. Use of these TDs will help to predict potential loss of liver tissue after SABR.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the relationship between physical and biological effective dose (BED) to liver toxicity for SBRT fractionations. Methods: A total of 16 patients (13–10×3Gy, 2–5×10Gy and 1–3×15Gy were selected. Physical dose distributions were converted to voxel based BED values using the linear-quadratic (LQ) and linear-quadratic linear (LQ-L) models for doses per fraction larger than 6Gy. Patients were graded for effective toxicity (post-treatment minus pre-treatment grades) using the RTOG Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Schema associated with Radiation Induced Liver Disease (RILD). Evaluated physical dose-volume levels consisted of V10Gy, V15Gy, V20Gy, V25Gy and V30Gy which were then converted to BED valuesmore » corresponding to V16.7Gy3, V30Gy3, V46.7Gy3, V66.7Gy3 and V90Gy3, respectively. All levels were normalized to their respective patient normal liver volumes (NLV) and evaluated for correlation to RILD. Results were measured quantitatively using R-squared regression analysis. Results: Mean Dose Tolerable to Normal Liver (MDTNL) against RILD grade resulted in an R-squared value of 0.0104. NLV-normalized physical dose linear regression fit of V10Gy, V15Gy, V20Gy, V25Gy and V30Gy against RILD yielded R-squared values of 0.1041, 0.0895, 0.0698, 0.0398 and 0.0009 while BED levels of V16.7Gy3, V30Gy3, V46.7Gy3, V66.7Gy3 and V90Gy3 resulted in values of 0.0002, 0.0153, 0.0533, 0.0427 and 0.0072, respectively. The average NLV-normalized V10Gy, V15Gy, V20Gy, V25Gy and V30Gy per grade plotted against RILD grade yielded R-squared correlations of 0.8092, 0.6362, 0.5899, 0.5846 and 0.0224 while the BED levels of V16.7Gy3, V30Gy3, V46.7Gy3, V66.7Gy3 and V90Gy3 resulted in R-squared correlations of 0.0003, 0.3831, 0.8476, 0.678 and 0.076, respectively. Conclusion: Regression analysis between physical dose, BED and RILD showed strong correlation for the V30Gy and V46.7Gy3 dose-levels. Average BED and physical dose per grade both exhibit strong correlations to RILD however, a lack of statistical significance exists due to small patient sample size.« less
  • Purpose: To determine the maximally tolerated dose of sorafenib delivered before, during, and after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in hepatocellular carinoma (HCC). Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had locally advanced Child-Pugh class A HCC, showed Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, and were ineligible for standard local-regional therapies. Sorafenib was dose escalated in 2 strata: (1) low effective irradiated liver volume (veff) < 30% and (2) high veff 30%to 60%. Sorafenib (400 mg daily = dose level 1) was administered for 12 weeks, with 6 fractions SBRT delivered weeks 2 and 3, and escalation to full dose (400 mg twice daily) after 12 weeks as tolerated.more » Standard 3 + 3 cohorts with dose escalation of sorafenib were planned. Results: Sixteen patients (4 low veff, median dose 51 Gy; 12 high veff, median dose 33 Gy) were treated at 2 sorafenib dose levels. Of those patients 75% were had Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C, and 63% had main branch portal vein invasion. In the low veff stratum, no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed in 4 patients treated with SBRT and sorafenib 400 mg. Inb the high veff stratum: 2 of 3 evaluable patients treated with sorafenib 400 mg experienced DLT (grade 3 large bowel bleed and grade 4 bowel obstruction 51 and 27 days, respectively, after SBRT). One of 6 evaluable patients at dose level −1 (200 mg once daily) experienced a grade 3 tumor rupture at week 5. Median overall survival and in-field local progression have not been reached. Worsening of Child-Pugh liver function class was seen in 6 of 12 patients in the high veff stratum. Conclusions: Significant toxicity was observed in the high veff stratum, and concurrent SBRT with sorafenib is not recommended outside a clinical trial.« less
  • Purpose: To identify risk factors associated with a decline in liver function after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Data were analyzed from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated on clinical trials of 6-fraction SBRT. Liver toxicity was defined as an increase in Child-Pugh (CP) score ≥2 three months after SBRT. Clinical factors, SBRT details, and liver dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters were tested for association with toxicity using logistic regression. CP class B patients were analyzed separately. Results: Among CP class A patients, 101 were evaluable, with a baseline score of A5 (72%) or A6 (28%).more » Fifty-three percent had portal vein thrombus. The median liver volume was 1286 cc (range, 766-3967 cc), and the median prescribed dose was 36 Gy (range, 27-54 Gy). Toxicity was seen in 26 patients (26%). Thrombus, baseline CP of A6, and lower platelet count were associated with toxicity on univariate analysis, as were several liver DVH-based parameters. Absolute and spared liver volumes were not significant. On multivariate analysis for CP class A patients, significant associations were found for baseline CP score of A6 (odds ratio [OR], 4.85), lower platelet count (OR, 0.90; median, 108 × 10{sup 9}/L vs 150 × 10{sup 9}/L), higher mean liver dose (OR, 1.33; median, 16.9 Gy vs 14.7 Gy), and higher dose to 800 cc of liver (OR, 1.11; median, 14.3 Gy vs 6.0 Gy). With 13 CP-B7 patients included or when dose to 800 cc of liver was replaced with other DVH parameters (eg, dose to 700 or 900 cc of liver) in the multivariate analysis, effective volume and portal vein thrombus were associated with an increased risk. Conclusions: Baseline CP scores and higher liver doses (eg, mean dose, effective volume, doses to 700-900 cc) were strongly associated with liver function decline 3 months after SBRT. A lower baseline platelet count and portal vein thrombus were also associated with an increased risk.« less
  • Purpose: Salvage options for unresectable locally recurrent, previously irradiated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (rSCCHN) are limited. Although the addition of reirradiation may improve outcomes compared to chemotherapy alone, significant toxicities limit salvage reirradiation strategies, leading to suboptimal outcomes. We therefore designed a phase 2 protocol to evaluate the efficacy of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) plus cetuximab for rSCCHN. Methods and Materials: From July 2007 to March 2013, 50 patients >18 years of age with inoperable locoregionally confined rSCCHN within a previously irradiated field receiving ≥60 Gy, with a Zubrod performance status of 0 to 2, and normalmore » hepatic and renal function were enrolled. Patients received concurrent cetuximab (400 mg/m{sup 2} on day −7 and then 250 mg/m{sup 2} on days 0 and +8) plus SBRT (40-44 Gy in 5 fractions on alternating days over 1-2 weeks). Primary endpoints were 1-year locoregional progression-free survival and National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0 graded toxicity. Results: Median follow-up for surviving patients was 18 months (range: 10-70). The 1-year local PFS rate was 60% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 44%-75%), locoregional PFS was 37% (95% CI: 23%-53%), distant PFS was 71% (95% CI: 54%-85%), and PFS was 33% (95% CI: 20%-49%). The median overall survival was 10 months (95% CI: 7-16), with a 1-year overall survival of 40% (95% CI: 26%-54%). At last follow-up, 69% died of disease, 4% died with disease, 15% died without progression, 10% were alive without progression, and 2% were alive with progression. Acute and late grade 3 toxicity was observed in 6% of patients respectively. Conclusions: SBRT with concurrent cetuximab appears to be a safe salvage treatment for rSCCHN of short overall treatment time.« less