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Title: THE AFTERGLOW AND ULIRG HOST GALAXY OF THE DARK SHORT GRB 120804A

Abstract

We present the optical discovery and subarcsecond optical and X-ray localization of the afterglow of the short GRB 120804A, as well as optical, near-IR, and radio detections of its host galaxy. X-ray observations with Swift/XRT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton extending to {delta}t Almost-Equal-To 19 days reveal a single power-law decline. The optical afterglow is faint, and comparison to the X-ray flux indicates that GRB 120804A is ''dark'', with a rest-frame extinction of A {sup host}{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 2.5 mag (at z = 1.3). The intrinsic neutral hydrogen column density inferred from the X-ray spectrum, N{sub H,{sub int}}(z = 1.3) Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, is commensurate with the large extinction. The host galaxy exhibits red optical/near-IR colors. Equally important, JVLA observations at Almost-Equal-To 0.9-11 days reveal a constant flux density of F{sub {nu}}(5.8 GHz) = 35 {+-} 4 {mu}Jy and an optically thin spectrum, unprecedented for GRB afterglows, but suggestive instead of emission from the host galaxy. The optical/near-IR and radio fluxes are well fit with the scaled spectral energy distribution of the local ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, with a resulting star formation rate of x Almost-Equal-To 300 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. Themore » inferred extinction and small projected offset (2.2 {+-} 1.2 kpc) are also consistent with the ULIRG scenario, as is the presence of a companion galaxy at the same redshift and with a separation of about 11 kpc. The limits on radio afterglow emission, in conjunction with the observed X-ray and optical emission, require a circumburst density of n {approx} 10{sup -3} cm{sup -3}, an isotropic-equivalent energy scale of E{sub {gamma},{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To E{sub K,{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg, and a jet opening angle of {theta}{sub j} {approx}> 11 Degree-Sign . The expected fraction of luminous infrared galaxies in the short GRB host sample is {approx}0.01 and {approx}0.25 (for pure stellar mass and star formation weighting, respectively). Thus, the observed fraction of two events in about 25 hosts (GRBs 120804A and 100206A) appears to support our previous conclusion that short GRBs track both stellar mass and star formation activity.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8]
  1. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  2. Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
  3. INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy)
  4. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
  5. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)
  6. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)
  7. Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark)
  8. Gemini Observatory, 670 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22126977
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 765; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; AFTERGLOW; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COSMIC GAMMA BURSTS; ENERGY SPECTRA; FLUX DENSITY; GALAXIES; HYDROGEN; JETS; PHOTON EMISSION; RED SHIFT; STARS; X RADIATION; X-RAY SPECTRA

Citation Formats

Berger, E., Zauderer, B. A., Margutti, R., Laskar, T., Fong, W., Chornock, R., Dupuy, T. J., Levan, A., Tunnicliffe, R. L., Mangano, V., Fox, D. B., Tanvir, N. R., Menten, K. M., Hjorth, J., and Roth, K.. THE AFTERGLOW AND ULIRG HOST GALAXY OF THE DARK SHORT GRB 120804A. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/765/2/121.
Berger, E., Zauderer, B. A., Margutti, R., Laskar, T., Fong, W., Chornock, R., Dupuy, T. J., Levan, A., Tunnicliffe, R. L., Mangano, V., Fox, D. B., Tanvir, N. R., Menten, K. M., Hjorth, J., & Roth, K.. THE AFTERGLOW AND ULIRG HOST GALAXY OF THE DARK SHORT GRB 120804A. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/765/2/121.
Berger, E., Zauderer, B. A., Margutti, R., Laskar, T., Fong, W., Chornock, R., Dupuy, T. J., Levan, A., Tunnicliffe, R. L., Mangano, V., Fox, D. B., Tanvir, N. R., Menten, K. M., Hjorth, J., and Roth, K.. 2013. "THE AFTERGLOW AND ULIRG HOST GALAXY OF THE DARK SHORT GRB 120804A". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/765/2/121.
@article{osti_22126977,
title = {THE AFTERGLOW AND ULIRG HOST GALAXY OF THE DARK SHORT GRB 120804A},
author = {Berger, E. and Zauderer, B. A. and Margutti, R. and Laskar, T. and Fong, W. and Chornock, R. and Dupuy, T. J. and Levan, A. and Tunnicliffe, R. L. and Mangano, V. and Fox, D. B. and Tanvir, N. R. and Menten, K. M. and Hjorth, J. and Roth, K.},
abstractNote = {We present the optical discovery and subarcsecond optical and X-ray localization of the afterglow of the short GRB 120804A, as well as optical, near-IR, and radio detections of its host galaxy. X-ray observations with Swift/XRT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton extending to {delta}t Almost-Equal-To 19 days reveal a single power-law decline. The optical afterglow is faint, and comparison to the X-ray flux indicates that GRB 120804A is ''dark'', with a rest-frame extinction of A {sup host}{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 2.5 mag (at z = 1.3). The intrinsic neutral hydrogen column density inferred from the X-ray spectrum, N{sub H,{sub int}}(z = 1.3) Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, is commensurate with the large extinction. The host galaxy exhibits red optical/near-IR colors. Equally important, JVLA observations at Almost-Equal-To 0.9-11 days reveal a constant flux density of F{sub {nu}}(5.8 GHz) = 35 {+-} 4 {mu}Jy and an optically thin spectrum, unprecedented for GRB afterglows, but suggestive instead of emission from the host galaxy. The optical/near-IR and radio fluxes are well fit with the scaled spectral energy distribution of the local ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, with a resulting star formation rate of x Almost-Equal-To 300 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The inferred extinction and small projected offset (2.2 {+-} 1.2 kpc) are also consistent with the ULIRG scenario, as is the presence of a companion galaxy at the same redshift and with a separation of about 11 kpc. The limits on radio afterglow emission, in conjunction with the observed X-ray and optical emission, require a circumburst density of n {approx} 10{sup -3} cm{sup -3}, an isotropic-equivalent energy scale of E{sub {gamma},{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To E{sub K,{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg, and a jet opening angle of {theta}{sub j} {approx}> 11 Degree-Sign . The expected fraction of luminous infrared galaxies in the short GRB host sample is {approx}0.01 and {approx}0.25 (for pure stellar mass and star formation weighting, respectively). Thus, the observed fraction of two events in about 25 hosts (GRBs 120804A and 100206A) appears to support our previous conclusion that short GRBs track both stellar mass and star formation activity.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/765/2/121},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 765,
place = {United States},
year = 2013,
month = 3
}
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