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Title: External Pelvic and Vaginal Irradiation Versus Vaginal Irradiation Alone as Postoperative Therapy in Medium-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma-A Prospective Randomized Study

Abstract

Purpose: To evaluate the value of adjuvant external beam pelvic radiotherapy as adjunct to vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in medium-risk endometrial carcinoma, with regard to locoregional tumor control, recurrences, survival, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Consecutive series of 527 evaluable patients were included in this randomized trial. Median follow-up for patients alive was 62 months. The primary study endpoints were locoregional recurrences and overall survival. Secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival, recurrence-free interval, cancer-specific survival, and toxicity. Results: Five-year locoregional relapse rates were 1.5% after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus VBT and 5% after vaginal irradiation alone (p = 0.013), and 5-year overall survival rates were 89% and 90%, respectively (p = 0.548). Endometrial cancer-related death rates were 3.8% after EBRT plus VBT and 6.8% after VBT (p = 0.118). Pelvic recurrences (exclusively vaginal recurrence) were reduced by 93% by the addition of EBRT to VBT. Deep myometrial infiltration was a significant prognostic factor in this medium-risk group of endometrioid carcinomas but not International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade or DNA ploidy. Combined radiotherapy was well tolerated, with serious (Grade 3) late side effects of less than 2%. However, there was a significant difference in favor of VBT alone. Conclusions: Despitemore » a significant locoregional control benefit with combined radiotherapy, no survival improvement was recorded, but increased late toxicity was noted in the intestine, bladder, and vagina. Combined RT should probably be reserved for high-risk cases with two or more high-risk factors. VBT alone should be the adjuvant treatment option for purely medium-risk cases.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Department of Gynecological Oncology, Oerebro University Hospital, Oerebro (Sweden)
  2. Department of Gynecological Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)
  3. Department of Gynecological Oncology, Umea University Hospital, Umea (Sweden)
  4. Department of Gynecological Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)
  5. Medical Products Agency, Uppsala (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22056131
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 82; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BEAMS; BLADDER; BRACHYTHERAPY; CARCINOMAS; DEATH; DNA; FEMALE GENITALS; GYNECOLOGY; HAZARDS; INTESTINES; IRRADIATION; PATIENTS; SIDE EFFECTS; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Sorbe, Bengt, E-mail: bengt.sorbe@orebroll.se, Horvath, Gyoergy, Andersson, Hakan, Boman, Karin, Lundgren, Caroline, and Pettersson, Birgitta. External Pelvic and Vaginal Irradiation Versus Vaginal Irradiation Alone as Postoperative Therapy in Medium-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma-A Prospective Randomized Study. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.04.014.
Sorbe, Bengt, E-mail: bengt.sorbe@orebroll.se, Horvath, Gyoergy, Andersson, Hakan, Boman, Karin, Lundgren, Caroline, & Pettersson, Birgitta. External Pelvic and Vaginal Irradiation Versus Vaginal Irradiation Alone as Postoperative Therapy in Medium-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma-A Prospective Randomized Study. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.04.014.
Sorbe, Bengt, E-mail: bengt.sorbe@orebroll.se, Horvath, Gyoergy, Andersson, Hakan, Boman, Karin, Lundgren, Caroline, and Pettersson, Birgitta. 2012. "External Pelvic and Vaginal Irradiation Versus Vaginal Irradiation Alone as Postoperative Therapy in Medium-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma-A Prospective Randomized Study". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.04.014.
@article{osti_22056131,
title = {External Pelvic and Vaginal Irradiation Versus Vaginal Irradiation Alone as Postoperative Therapy in Medium-Risk Endometrial Carcinoma-A Prospective Randomized Study},
author = {Sorbe, Bengt, E-mail: bengt.sorbe@orebroll.se and Horvath, Gyoergy and Andersson, Hakan and Boman, Karin and Lundgren, Caroline and Pettersson, Birgitta},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To evaluate the value of adjuvant external beam pelvic radiotherapy as adjunct to vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) in medium-risk endometrial carcinoma, with regard to locoregional tumor control, recurrences, survival, and toxicity. Methods and Materials: Consecutive series of 527 evaluable patients were included in this randomized trial. Median follow-up for patients alive was 62 months. The primary study endpoints were locoregional recurrences and overall survival. Secondary endpoints were recurrence-free survival, recurrence-free interval, cancer-specific survival, and toxicity. Results: Five-year locoregional relapse rates were 1.5% after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus VBT and 5% after vaginal irradiation alone (p = 0.013), and 5-year overall survival rates were 89% and 90%, respectively (p = 0.548). Endometrial cancer-related death rates were 3.8% after EBRT plus VBT and 6.8% after VBT (p = 0.118). Pelvic recurrences (exclusively vaginal recurrence) were reduced by 93% by the addition of EBRT to VBT. Deep myometrial infiltration was a significant prognostic factor in this medium-risk group of endometrioid carcinomas but not International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade or DNA ploidy. Combined radiotherapy was well tolerated, with serious (Grade 3) late side effects of less than 2%. However, there was a significant difference in favor of VBT alone. Conclusions: Despite a significant locoregional control benefit with combined radiotherapy, no survival improvement was recorded, but increased late toxicity was noted in the intestine, bladder, and vagina. Combined RT should probably be reserved for high-risk cases with two or more high-risk factors. VBT alone should be the adjuvant treatment option for purely medium-risk cases.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2011.04.014},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 3,
volume = 82,
place = {United States},
year = 2012,
month = 3
}
  • A prospective trial was performed to evaluate the recurrence rate and 5-year disease-free survival rate in patients with surgical Stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma. Patients with Stage I, Grade 1 or 2 disease, less than 50% myometrial invasion, and no evidence of disease outside the corpus of the uterus were treated by hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and postoperative vaginal radium/cesium (Group 1). Patients with surgical Stage I, Grade 3 disease or deep myometrial invasion, and histologically negative paraaortic lymph nodes were treated with postoperative pelvic radiation therapy (5000-5040 cGY) (Group 2). Patients with malignant peritoneal cytologic findings also received progesterone therapy.more » Of the 92 Group 1 patients, there have been no recurrences and the 5-year estimated disease-free survival rate was 99%. Of the 41 Group 2 patients, there have been four (9.7%) recurrences but only one (2.4%) within the treated field (pelvis), and the 5-year estimated disease-free survival rate was 88%. Of the 133 patients, the 5-year estimated disease-free survival rate was 96%, and only one patient (0.7%) had a local pelvic recurrence. Of the 16 patients with malignant peritoneal cytologic findings who were treated with progesterone therapy, none has had a recurrence.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the toxicity and clinical outcome in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) treated with whole pelvic conventional radiation therapy (WP-CRT) versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (WP-IMRT). Methods and Materials: Between January 2010 and January 2012, 44 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO 2009) stage IIB-IIIB squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix were randomized to receive 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions delivered via either WP-CRT or WP-IMRT with concurrent weekly cisplatin 40 mg/m{sup 2}. Acute toxicity was graded according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, and late toxicity was gradedmore » according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group system. The primary and secondary endpoints were acute gastrointestinal toxicity and disease-free survival, respectively. Results: Of 44 patients, 22 patients received WP-CRT and 22 received WP-IMRT. In the WP-CRT arm, 13 patients had stage IIB disease and 9 had stage IIIB disease; in the IMRT arm, 12 patients had stage IIB disease and 10 had stage IIIB disease. The median follow-up time in the WP-CRT arm was 21.7 months (range, 10.7-37.4 months), and in the WP-IMRT arm it was 21.6 months (range, 7.7-34.4 months). At 27 months, disease-free survival was 79.4% in the WP-CRT group versus 60% in the WP-IMRT group (P=.651), and overall survival was 76% in the WP-CRT group versus 85.7% in the WP-IMRT group (P=.645). Patients in the WP-IMRT arm experienced significantly fewer grade ≥2 acute gastrointestinal toxicities (31.8% vs 63.6%, P=.034) and grade ≥3 gastrointestinal toxicities (4.5% vs 27.3%, P=.047) than did patients receiving WP-CRT and had less chronic gastrointestinal toxicity (13.6% vs 50%, P=.011). Conclusion: WP-IMRT is associated with significantly less toxicity compared with WP-CRT and has a comparable clinical outcome. Further studies with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up times are warranted to justify its use in routine clinical practice.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate, in a phase III randomized trial, whether postoperative external-beam irradiation to the standard pelvic field improves the recurrence-free interval and overall survival (OS) in women with Stage IB cervical cancers with negative lymph nodes and certain poor prognostic features treated by radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had Stage IB cervical cancer with negative lymph nodes but with 2 or more of the following features: more than one third (deep) stromal invasion, capillary lymphatic space involvement, and tumor diameter of 4 cm or more. The study group included 277 patients: 137 randomized tomore » pelvic irradiation (RT) and 140 randomized to observation (OBS). The planned pelvic dose was from 46 Gy in 23 fractions to 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions. Results: Of the 67 recurrences, 24 were in the RT arm and 43 were in the OBS arm. The RT arm showed a statistically significant (46%) reduction in risk of recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.54, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35 to 0.81, p = 0.007) and a statistically significant reduction in risk of progression or death (HR = 0.58, 90% CI = 0.40 to 0.85, p = 0.009). With RT, 8.8% of patients (3 of 34) with adenosquamous or adenocarcinoma tumors recurred vs. 44.0% (11 of 25) in OBS. Fewer recurrences were seen with RT in patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies relative to others (HR for RT by histology interaction = 0.23, 90% CI = 0.07 to 0.74, p = 0.019). After an extensive follow-up period, 67 deaths have occurred: 27 RT patients and 40 OBS patients. The improvement in overall survival (HR = 0.70, 90% CI = 0.45 to 1.05, p = 0.074) with RT did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery significantly reduces the risk of recurrence and prolongs progression-free survival in women with Stage IB cervical cancer. RT appears to be particularly beneficial for patients with adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous histologies. Circumstances that may have influenced the overall survival differences are considered.« less
  • In August 1980, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) completed a prospective randomized clinical trial for the comparison of a split-course versus a standard continuous course of pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the uterine cervix Stages II-B, III-A, III-B, and IV-A. The split-course consisted of 10 fractions of 250 rad each, 5 times a week, up to 2500 rad followed by a rest period of approximately 2 weeks and then another 2500 rad was given (250 X 10). The continuous course consisted of 30 fractions of 170 rad each, 5 times per week, for a total of 5100 rad. Inmore » both groups the external pelvis irradiation was followed by intracavity brachytherapy in the uterus and vagina. Three hundred and one patients were registered, of which 287 are currently evaluable. No differences between the treatments were detected for the following study end-points: treatment tolerance in terms of acute normal tissue reactions and completion of therapy, tumor control in the pelvis, severe late normal tissue reations, and survival. (JMT)« less
  • In August 1980, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) completed a prospective randomized clinical trial for the comparison of a split-course versus a standard continuous course of pelvic irradiation for carcinoma of the uterine cervix Stages II-B, III-A, III-B, and IV-A. The split-course consisted of 10 fractions of 250 rad each, 5 times a week, up to 2500 rad followed by a rest period of approximately 2 weeks and then another 2500 rad was given (250 X 10). The continuous course consisted of 30 fractions of 170 rad each, 5 times per week, for a total of 5100 rad. Inmore » both groups the external pelvis irradiation was followed by intracavity brachytherapy in the uterus and vagina. Three hundred and one patients were registered, of which 287 are currently evaluable. No differences between the treatments were detected for the following study end-points: treatment tolerance in terms of acute normal tissue reactions and completion of therapy, tumor control in the pelvis, severe late normal tissue reations, and survival. (JMT)« less