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Title: FORCE-FEEDING BLACK HOLES

Abstract

We propose that the growth of supermassive black holes is associated mainly with brief episodes of highly super-Eddington infall of gas ({sup h}yperaccretion{sup )}. This gas is not swallowed in real time, but forms an envelope of matter around the black hole that can be swallowed gradually, over a much longer timescale. However, only a small fraction of the black hole mass can be stored in the envelope at any one time. We argue that any infalling matter above a few percent of the hole's mass is ejected as a result of the plunge in opacity at temperatures below a few thousand degrees kelvin, corresponding to the Hayashi track. The speed of ejection of this matter, compared to the velocity dispersion {sigma} of the host galaxy's core, determines whether the ejected matter is lost forever or returns eventually to rejoin the envelope, from which it can be ultimately accreted. The threshold between matter recycling and permanent loss defines a relationship between the maximum black hole mass and {sigma} that resembles the empirical M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Also at Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, CO, USA. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22047926
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 749; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8205
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCRETION DISKS; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; BLACK HOLES; COSMIC GASES; GALAXIES; HYDRODYNAMICS; MASS; OPACITY; RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER

Citation Formats

Begelman, Mitchell C., E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu. FORCE-FEEDING BLACK HOLES. United States: N. p., 2012. Web. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/749/1/L3.
Begelman, Mitchell C., E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu. FORCE-FEEDING BLACK HOLES. United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/749/1/L3.
Begelman, Mitchell C., E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu. Tue . "FORCE-FEEDING BLACK HOLES". United States. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/749/1/L3.
@article{osti_22047926,
title = {FORCE-FEEDING BLACK HOLES},
author = {Begelman, Mitchell C., E-mail: mitch@jila.colorado.edu},
abstractNote = {We propose that the growth of supermassive black holes is associated mainly with brief episodes of highly super-Eddington infall of gas ({sup h}yperaccretion{sup )}. This gas is not swallowed in real time, but forms an envelope of matter around the black hole that can be swallowed gradually, over a much longer timescale. However, only a small fraction of the black hole mass can be stored in the envelope at any one time. We argue that any infalling matter above a few percent of the hole's mass is ejected as a result of the plunge in opacity at temperatures below a few thousand degrees kelvin, corresponding to the Hayashi track. The speed of ejection of this matter, compared to the velocity dispersion {sigma} of the host galaxy's core, determines whether the ejected matter is lost forever or returns eventually to rejoin the envelope, from which it can be ultimately accreted. The threshold between matter recycling and permanent loss defines a relationship between the maximum black hole mass and {sigma} that resembles the empirical M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation.},
doi = {10.1088/2041-8205/749/1/L3},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal Letters},
issn = {2041-8205},
number = 1,
volume = 749,
place = {United States},
year = {2012},
month = {4}
}