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Title: WHAT DOES A SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY SELECTION ACTUALLY SELECT? THE DEPENDENCE OF SUBMILLIMETER FLUX DENSITY ON STAR FORMATION RATE AND DUST MASS

Abstract

We perform three-dimensional dust radiative transfer (RT) calculations on hydrodynamic simulations of isolated and merging disk galaxies in order to quantitatively study the dependence of observed-frame submillimeter (submm) flux density on galaxy properties. We find that submm flux density and star formation rate (SFR) are related in dramatically different ways for quiescently star-forming galaxies and starbursts. Because the stars formed in the merger-induced starburst do not dominate the bolometric luminosity and the rapid drop in dust mass and more compact geometry cause a sharp increase in dust temperature during the burst, starbursts are very inefficient at boosting submm flux density (e.g., a {approx}> 16 Multiplication-Sign boost in SFR yields a {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign boost in submm flux density). Moreover, the ratio of submm flux density to SFR differs significantly between the two modes; thus one cannot assume that the galaxies with highest submm flux density are necessarily those with the highest bolometric luminosity or SFR. These results have important consequences for the bright submillimeter-selected galaxy (SMG) population. Among them are: (1) The SMG population is heterogeneous. In addition to merger-driven starbursts, there is a subpopulation of galaxy pairs, where two disks undergoing a major merger but not yet strongly interactingmore » are blended into one submm source because of the large ({approx}> 15'' or {approx}130 kpc at z = 2) beam of single-dish submm telescopes. (2) SMGs must be very massive (M{sub *} {approx}> 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }). (3) The infall phase makes the SMG duty cycle a factor of a few greater than what is expected for a merger-driven starburst. Finally, we provide fitting functions for SCUBA and AzTEC submm flux densities as a function of SFR and dust mass and bolometric luminosity and dust mass; these should be useful for calculating submm flux density in semi-analytic models and cosmological simulations when performing full RT is computationally not feasible.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  2. Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22004403
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 743; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; BOLOMETERS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DUSTS; FLUX DENSITY; GALAXIES; LUMINOSITY; MASS; RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER; RED SHIFT; STARS; TELESCOPES; THREE-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS

Citation Formats

Hayward, Christopher C., Keres, Dusan, Jonsson, Patrik, Narayanan, Desika, Hernquist, Lars, and Cox, T. J., E-mail: chayward@cfa.harvard.edu. WHAT DOES A SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY SELECTION ACTUALLY SELECT? THE DEPENDENCE OF SUBMILLIMETER FLUX DENSITY ON STAR FORMATION RATE AND DUST MASS. United States: N. p., 2011. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/159.
Hayward, Christopher C., Keres, Dusan, Jonsson, Patrik, Narayanan, Desika, Hernquist, Lars, & Cox, T. J., E-mail: chayward@cfa.harvard.edu. WHAT DOES A SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY SELECTION ACTUALLY SELECT? THE DEPENDENCE OF SUBMILLIMETER FLUX DENSITY ON STAR FORMATION RATE AND DUST MASS. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/159.
Hayward, Christopher C., Keres, Dusan, Jonsson, Patrik, Narayanan, Desika, Hernquist, Lars, and Cox, T. J., E-mail: chayward@cfa.harvard.edu. Tue . "WHAT DOES A SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY SELECTION ACTUALLY SELECT? THE DEPENDENCE OF SUBMILLIMETER FLUX DENSITY ON STAR FORMATION RATE AND DUST MASS". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/159.
@article{osti_22004403,
title = {WHAT DOES A SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY SELECTION ACTUALLY SELECT? THE DEPENDENCE OF SUBMILLIMETER FLUX DENSITY ON STAR FORMATION RATE AND DUST MASS},
author = {Hayward, Christopher C. and Keres, Dusan and Jonsson, Patrik and Narayanan, Desika and Hernquist, Lars and Cox, T. J., E-mail: chayward@cfa.harvard.edu},
abstractNote = {We perform three-dimensional dust radiative transfer (RT) calculations on hydrodynamic simulations of isolated and merging disk galaxies in order to quantitatively study the dependence of observed-frame submillimeter (submm) flux density on galaxy properties. We find that submm flux density and star formation rate (SFR) are related in dramatically different ways for quiescently star-forming galaxies and starbursts. Because the stars formed in the merger-induced starburst do not dominate the bolometric luminosity and the rapid drop in dust mass and more compact geometry cause a sharp increase in dust temperature during the burst, starbursts are very inefficient at boosting submm flux density (e.g., a {approx}> 16 Multiplication-Sign boost in SFR yields a {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign boost in submm flux density). Moreover, the ratio of submm flux density to SFR differs significantly between the two modes; thus one cannot assume that the galaxies with highest submm flux density are necessarily those with the highest bolometric luminosity or SFR. These results have important consequences for the bright submillimeter-selected galaxy (SMG) population. Among them are: (1) The SMG population is heterogeneous. In addition to merger-driven starbursts, there is a subpopulation of galaxy pairs, where two disks undergoing a major merger but not yet strongly interacting are blended into one submm source because of the large ({approx}> 15'' or {approx}130 kpc at z = 2) beam of single-dish submm telescopes. (2) SMGs must be very massive (M{sub *} {approx}> 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }). (3) The infall phase makes the SMG duty cycle a factor of a few greater than what is expected for a merger-driven starburst. Finally, we provide fitting functions for SCUBA and AzTEC submm flux densities as a function of SFR and dust mass and bolometric luminosity and dust mass; these should be useful for calculating submm flux density in semi-analytic models and cosmological simulations when performing full RT is computationally not feasible.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/743/2/159},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 2,
volume = 743,
place = {United States},
year = {2011},
month = {12}
}