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Title: THE MILKY WAY TOMOGRAPHY WITH SDSS. III. STELLAR KINEMATICS

Abstract

We study Milky Way kinematics using a sample of 18.8 million main-sequence stars with r < 20 and proper-motion measurements derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and POSS astrometry, including {approx}170,000 stars with radial-velocity measurements from the SDSS spectroscopic survey. Distances to stars are determined using a photometric-parallax relation, covering a distance range from {approx}100 pc to 10 kpc over a quarter of the sky at high Galactic latitudes (|b|>20{sup 0}). We find that in the region defined by 1 kpc <Z< 5 kpc and 3 kpc <R< 13 kpc, the rotational velocity for disk stars smoothly decreases, and all three components of the velocity dispersion increase, with distance from the Galactic plane. In contrast, the velocity ellipsoid for halo stars is aligned with a spherical coordinate system and appears to be spatially invariant within the probed volume. The velocity distribution of nearby (Z < 1 kpc) K/M stars is complex, and cannot be described by a standard Schwarzschild ellipsoid. For stars in a distance-limited subsample of stars (<100 pc), we detect a multi-modal velocity distribution consistent with that seen by HIPPARCOS. This strong non-Gaussianity significantly affects the measurements of the velocity-ellipsoid tilt and vertex deviation when using themore » Schwarzschild approximation. We develop and test a simple descriptive model for the overall kinematic behavior that captures these features over most of the probed volume, and can be used to search for substructure in kinematic and metallicity space. We use this model to predict further improvements in kinematic mapping of the Galaxy expected from Gaia and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ; ; ; ; ;  [2];  [3];  [4]; ; ;  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13]
  1. Physics and Astronomy Department, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States)
  2. Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)
  3. Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
  4. U. S. Naval Observatory, Flagstaff Station, P.O. Box 1149, Flagstaff, AZ 86002 (United States)
  5. Department of Physics and Astronomy and JINA: Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)
  6. University of California-Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)
  7. Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)
  8. Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)
  9. McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
  10. Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States)
  11. Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)
  12. Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia)
  13. Max Planck Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21450884
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 716; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/1; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; MAIN SEQUENCE STARS; MILKY WAY; PROPER MOTION; RADIAL VELOCITY; TELESCOPES; TOMOGRAPHY; DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES; GALAXIES; MOTION; STARS; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Bond, Nicholas A., Ivezic, Zeljko, Sesar, Branimir, Kowalski, Adam, Loebman, Sarah, Roskar, Rok, Dalcanton, Julianne, Juric, Mario, Munn, Jeffrey A., Beers, Timothy C., Lee, Young Sun, Sivarani, Thirupathi, Rockosi, Constance M., Yanny, Brian, Newberg, Heidi J., Allende Prieto, Carlos, Wilhelm, Ron, Majewski, Steven R., Norris, John E., and Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L. THE MILKY WAY TOMOGRAPHY WITH SDSS. III. STELLAR KINEMATICS. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/1.
Bond, Nicholas A., Ivezic, Zeljko, Sesar, Branimir, Kowalski, Adam, Loebman, Sarah, Roskar, Rok, Dalcanton, Julianne, Juric, Mario, Munn, Jeffrey A., Beers, Timothy C., Lee, Young Sun, Sivarani, Thirupathi, Rockosi, Constance M., Yanny, Brian, Newberg, Heidi J., Allende Prieto, Carlos, Wilhelm, Ron, Majewski, Steven R., Norris, John E., & Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L. THE MILKY WAY TOMOGRAPHY WITH SDSS. III. STELLAR KINEMATICS. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/1.
Bond, Nicholas A., Ivezic, Zeljko, Sesar, Branimir, Kowalski, Adam, Loebman, Sarah, Roskar, Rok, Dalcanton, Julianne, Juric, Mario, Munn, Jeffrey A., Beers, Timothy C., Lee, Young Sun, Sivarani, Thirupathi, Rockosi, Constance M., Yanny, Brian, Newberg, Heidi J., Allende Prieto, Carlos, Wilhelm, Ron, Majewski, Steven R., Norris, John E., and Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L. Thu . "THE MILKY WAY TOMOGRAPHY WITH SDSS. III. STELLAR KINEMATICS". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/1.
@article{osti_21450884,
title = {THE MILKY WAY TOMOGRAPHY WITH SDSS. III. STELLAR KINEMATICS},
author = {Bond, Nicholas A. and Ivezic, Zeljko and Sesar, Branimir and Kowalski, Adam and Loebman, Sarah and Roskar, Rok and Dalcanton, Julianne and Juric, Mario and Munn, Jeffrey A. and Beers, Timothy C. and Lee, Young Sun and Sivarani, Thirupathi and Rockosi, Constance M. and Yanny, Brian and Newberg, Heidi J. and Allende Prieto, Carlos and Wilhelm, Ron and Majewski, Steven R. and Norris, John E. and Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.},
abstractNote = {We study Milky Way kinematics using a sample of 18.8 million main-sequence stars with r < 20 and proper-motion measurements derived from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and POSS astrometry, including {approx}170,000 stars with radial-velocity measurements from the SDSS spectroscopic survey. Distances to stars are determined using a photometric-parallax relation, covering a distance range from {approx}100 pc to 10 kpc over a quarter of the sky at high Galactic latitudes (|b|>20{sup 0}). We find that in the region defined by 1 kpc <Z< 5 kpc and 3 kpc <R< 13 kpc, the rotational velocity for disk stars smoothly decreases, and all three components of the velocity dispersion increase, with distance from the Galactic plane. In contrast, the velocity ellipsoid for halo stars is aligned with a spherical coordinate system and appears to be spatially invariant within the probed volume. The velocity distribution of nearby (Z < 1 kpc) K/M stars is complex, and cannot be described by a standard Schwarzschild ellipsoid. For stars in a distance-limited subsample of stars (<100 pc), we detect a multi-modal velocity distribution consistent with that seen by HIPPARCOS. This strong non-Gaussianity significantly affects the measurements of the velocity-ellipsoid tilt and vertex deviation when using the Schwarzschild approximation. We develop and test a simple descriptive model for the overall kinematic behavior that captures these features over most of the probed volume, and can be used to search for substructure in kinematic and metallicity space. We use this model to predict further improvements in kinematic mapping of the Galaxy expected from Gaia and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/716/1/1},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 1,
volume = 716,
place = {United States},
year = {2010},
month = {6}
}