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Title: Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control

Abstract

Purpose: To investigate the incidence and local control of internal mammary lymph node metastases (IMN+) in patients with clinical N2 or N3 locally advanced breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 809 breast cancer patients diagnosed with advanced nodal disease (clinical N2-3) who received radiation treatment at our institution from January 2000 December 2006. Patients were considered IMN+ on the basis of imaging studies. Results: We identified 112 of 809 patients who presented with IMN+ disease (13.8%) detected on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. All 112 patients with IMN+ disease received anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) resulted in a complete response (CR) on imaging studies of IMN disease in 72.1% of patients. Excluding 16 patients with progressive disease, 96 patients received adjuvant radiation to the breast or the chest wall and the regional lymphatics including the IMN chain with a median dose of 60 Gy if the internal mammary lymph nodes normalized after chemotherapy and 66 Gy if they did not. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 41 months (8-118 months). For the 96 patients able to complete curative therapy, the actuarial 5-year IMNmore » control rate, locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival were 89%, 80%, 76%, and 56%. Conclusion: Over ten percent of patients with advanced nodal disease will have IMN metastases on imaging studies. Multimodality therapy including IMN irradiation achieves excellent rates of control in the IMN region and a DFS of more than 50% after curative treatment.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)
  2. Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
  3. Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21436080
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 77; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.081; PII: S0360-3016(09)02793-X; Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; CHEMOTHERAPY; CONTROL; LYMPH NODES; MAMMARY GLANDS; METASTASES; NEOPLASMS; NMR IMAGING; POSITRON COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; RADIOTHERAPY; BODY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES; DISEASES; EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY; GLANDS; LYMPHATIC SYSTEM; MEDICINE; NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ORGANS; RADIOLOGY; THERAPY; TOMOGRAPHY

Citation Formats

Zhang Yujing, Oh, Julia L., E-mail: joh@mdanderson.or, and Whitman, Gary J.. Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control. United States: N. p., 2010. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.081.
Zhang Yujing, Oh, Julia L., E-mail: joh@mdanderson.or, & Whitman, Gary J.. Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.081.
Zhang Yujing, Oh, Julia L., E-mail: joh@mdanderson.or, and Whitman, Gary J.. 2010. "Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.081.
@article{osti_21436080,
title = {Clinically Apparent Internal Mammary Nodal Metastasis in Patients With Advanced Breast Cancer: Incidence and Local Control},
author = {Zhang Yujing and Oh, Julia L., E-mail: joh@mdanderson.or and Whitman, Gary J.},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To investigate the incidence and local control of internal mammary lymph node metastases (IMN+) in patients with clinical N2 or N3 locally advanced breast cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 809 breast cancer patients diagnosed with advanced nodal disease (clinical N2-3) who received radiation treatment at our institution from January 2000 December 2006. Patients were considered IMN+ on the basis of imaging studies. Results: We identified 112 of 809 patients who presented with IMN+ disease (13.8%) detected on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. All 112 patients with IMN+ disease received anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) resulted in a complete response (CR) on imaging studies of IMN disease in 72.1% of patients. Excluding 16 patients with progressive disease, 96 patients received adjuvant radiation to the breast or the chest wall and the regional lymphatics including the IMN chain with a median dose of 60 Gy if the internal mammary lymph nodes normalized after chemotherapy and 66 Gy if they did not. The median follow-up of surviving patients was 41 months (8-118 months). For the 96 patients able to complete curative therapy, the actuarial 5-year IMN control rate, locoregional control, overall survival, and disease-free survival were 89%, 80%, 76%, and 56%. Conclusion: Over ten percent of patients with advanced nodal disease will have IMN metastases on imaging studies. Multimodality therapy including IMN irradiation achieves excellent rates of control in the IMN region and a DFS of more than 50% after curative treatment.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.06.081},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 77,
place = {United States},
year = 2010,
month = 7
}
  • Purpose: To evaluate the incidental irradiation dose to elective nodal regions in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with involved-field radiation therapy (IF-RT) and the pattern of elective nodal failure (ENF). Methods and Materials: Fifty patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, who received IF-RT at Kagawa University were enrolled. To evaluate the dose of incidental irradiation, we delineated nodal regions with a Japanese map and the American Thoracic Society map (levels 1-11) in each patient retrospectively and calculated the dose parameters such as mean dose, D95, and V95 (40 Gy as the prescribed dose of elective nodal irradiation). Results:more » Using the Japanese map, the median mean dose was more than 40 Gy in most of the nodal regions, except at levels 1, 3, and 7. In particular, each dosimetric parameter of level 1 was significantly lower than those at other levels, and each dosimetric parameter of levels 10 to 11 ipsilateral (11I) was significantly higher than those in other nodal regions. Using the American Thoracic Society map, basically, the results were similar to those of the Japanese map. ENF was observed in 4 patients (8%), five nodal regions, and no mean dose to the nodal region exceeded 40 Gy. On the Japanese map, each parameter of these five nodal region was significantly lower than those of the other nodal regions. Conclusions: These results show that a high dose of incidental irradiation may contribute to the low incidence of ENF in patients who have received IF-RT.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the financial implications of radiotherapy (RT) to the internal mammary and medial supraclavicular lymph node chain (IM-MS) in postoperative breast cancer. Methods and Materials: A cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analysis were performed, using Markov models, comparing the early and delayed costs and effects of IM-MS during a 20-year time span from a societal viewpoint. The outcome estimates were based on Level I evidence from postoperative RT literature and the cost estimates on the standard practice of the Leuven University Hospitals, with the RT costs derived from an activity-based costing program developed in the department. Results: On the basismore » of the assumptions of the model and seen during a 20-year time span, primary treatment including IM-MS RT results in a cost savings (approximately EURO 10,000) compared with a strategy without RT. Because IM-MS RT also results in better clinical effectiveness and greater quality of life, the treatment with IM-MS dominates the approach without IM-MS. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results in all tested circumstances. Although threshold values were found for the cost of IM-MS, the cost at relapse, and the quality of life after treatment, these were substantially different from the baseline estimates, indicating that it is very unlikely that omitting IM-MS would become superior. Conclusion: This ex-ante cost evaluation of IM-MS RT showed that the upfront costs of locoregional RT are easily compensated for by avoiding the costs of treating locoregional and distant relapse at a later stage. The cost-sparing effect of RT should, however, be evaluated for a sufficiently long time span and is most specifically found in tumors with a rather slow natural history and a multitude of available systemic treatments at relapse, such as breast cancer.« less
  • Purpose: The optimal clinical target volume for internal mammary (IM) node irradiation is uncertain in an era of increasingly conformal volume-based treatment planning for breast cancer. We mapped the location of gross internal mammary lymph node (IMN) metastases to identify areas at highest risk of harboring occult disease. Methods and Materials: Patients with axial imaging of IMN disease were identified from a breast cancer registry. The IMN location was transferred onto the corresponding anatomic position on representative axial computed tomography images of a patient in the treatment position and compared with consensus group guidelines of IMN target delineation. Results: Themore » IMN location in 67 patients with 130 IMN metastases was mapped. The location was in the first 3 intercostal spaces in 102 of 130 nodal metastases (78%), whereas 18 of 130 IMNs (14%) were located caudal to the third intercostal space and 10 of 130 IMNs (8%) were located cranial to the first intercostal space. Of the 102 nodal metastases within the first 3 intercostal spaces, 54 (53%) were located within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group consensus volume. Relative to the IM vessels, 19 nodal metastases (19%) were located medially with a mean distance of 2.2 mm (SD, 2.9 mm) whereas 29 (28%) were located laterally with a mean distance of 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5 mm). Ninety percent of lymph nodes within the first 3 intercostal spaces would have been encompassed within a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels. Conclusions: In women with indications for elective IMN irradiation, a 4-mm medial and lateral expansion on the IM vessels may be appropriate. In women with known IMN involvement, cranial extension to the confluence of the IM vein with the brachiocephalic vein with or without caudal extension to the fourth or fifth interspace may be considered provided that normal tissue constraints are met.« less
  • Twenty patients with Stage I or II breast cancer, all of whom had undergone radiation therapy planning, were examined with internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy (MLS) and computed tomography (CT). Based on the results of MLS, radiation fields were revised in 12 cases (60%). The mean number of nodes identified by MLS in each patient was 7.8, which is in agreement with previously published autopsy and scintigraphic data. CT identified 243 possible nodes of normal size, but only 49 of them were within 10 mm of regions shown to be positive on the scintigram. The authors conclude that MLS is the methodmore » of choice for defining parasternal lymphatic drainage and identifying those internal mammary nodes that are normal in both size and function.« less
  • Twenty patients with Stage I or II breast cancer, all of whom had undergone radiation therapy planning, were examined with internal mammary lymphoscintigraphy (IMLS) and computed tomography (CT). Based on the results of IMLS, radiation fields were revised in 12 cases (60%). The mean number of nodes identified by IMLS in each patient was 7.8, which is in agreement with previously published autopsy and scintigraphic data. CT identified 243 possible nodes of normal size, but only 49 of them were within 10 mm of regions shown to be positive on the scintigram. The authors conclude that IMLS is the methodmore » of choice for defining parasternal lymphatic drainage and identifying those internal mammary nodes that are normal in both size and function.« less