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Title: A Search for GeV-TeV Emission from GRBs Using the Milagro Detector

Abstract

The Milagro detector surveyed the sky almost continuously in the very high energy regime from January 2000 through March 2008. During that time, over 130 GRBs have been detected and well localized by satellites within its 2 sr field of view. We have used Milagro data to search for >1 GeV emission from these bursts. Milagro is a water Cerenkov detector designed primarily for observations in the 0.1-100 TeV energy range. Milagro was operated simultaneously in both standard mode and 'scaler' mode. In the standard analysis, the direction and energy of an incoming particle is determined by reconstructing the air shower produced when the particle interacts in the Earth's atmosphere. In 'scaler' mode, the rates of the PMTs are monitored and fluctuations temporally coincident with GRBs are searched for. No significant emission was discovered using either method and the upper limit on the emission for each burst with known redshift is reported.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA, 95060 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21304958
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1133; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 6. Huntsville symposium on gamma-ray burst, Huntsville, AL (United States), 20-23 Oct 2008; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.3155925; (c) 2009 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS//MATHEMATICS, COMPUTING, AND INFORMATION SCIENCE; CHERENKOV COUNTERS; COSMIC GAMMA BURSTS; COSMIC GAMMA SOURCES; COSMIC PHOTONS; COSMIC SHOWERS; EARTH ATMOSPHERE; FLUCTUATIONS; GAMMA ASTRONOMY; GAMMA DETECTION; GEV RANGE; PHOTOMULTIPLIERS; PHOTON EMISSION; RED SHIFT; SATELLITES; TELESCOPE COUNTERS; TEV RANGE; WATER

Citation Formats

Aune, Taylor. A Search for GeV-TeV Emission from GRBs Using the Milagro Detector. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1063/1.3155925.
Aune, Taylor. A Search for GeV-TeV Emission from GRBs Using the Milagro Detector. United States. doi:10.1063/1.3155925.
Aune, Taylor. 2009. "A Search for GeV-TeV Emission from GRBs Using the Milagro Detector". United States. doi:10.1063/1.3155925.
@article{osti_21304958,
title = {A Search for GeV-TeV Emission from GRBs Using the Milagro Detector},
author = {Aune, Taylor},
abstractNote = {The Milagro detector surveyed the sky almost continuously in the very high energy regime from January 2000 through March 2008. During that time, over 130 GRBs have been detected and well localized by satellites within its 2 sr field of view. We have used Milagro data to search for >1 GeV emission from these bursts. Milagro is a water Cerenkov detector designed primarily for observations in the 0.1-100 TeV energy range. Milagro was operated simultaneously in both standard mode and 'scaler' mode. In the standard analysis, the direction and energy of an incoming particle is determined by reconstructing the air shower produced when the particle interacts in the Earth's atmosphere. In 'scaler' mode, the rates of the PMTs are monitored and fluctuations temporally coincident with GRBs are searched for. No significant emission was discovered using either method and the upper limit on the emission for each burst with known redshift is reported.},
doi = {10.1063/1.3155925},
journal = {AIP Conference Proceedings},
number = 1,
volume = 1133,
place = {United States},
year = 2009,
month = 5
}
  • The Milagro detector surveyed the sky continuously in the Very High Energy regime from January 2000 through March 2008. During that time, over 130 GRBs were detected and well localized by satellites within its 2 sr field of view. We have used Milagro data to search for >1 GeV emission from these bursts. Milagro is a water Cerenkov detector designed primarily for observations in the 0.1-100 TeV energy range. In the standard mode of operation, Milagro data is used to reconstruct the direction of an incoming high energy particle by analyzing the timing information of a large number of photomultipliermore » tubes that are triggered in coincidence by the air shower generated when such a particle interacts with the Earth's atmosphere. Milagro data, however, can also be analyzed in 'scaler mode', where the rates of individual photomultiplier tubes can be used to detect emission above 1 GeV (albeit with no directional information). Here we present results from both techniques for all known GRBs detected by BATSE, BeppoSax, HETE-2, INTEGRAL, Swift, and the IPN, within the field of view of Milagro in its 8 years of operation.« less
  • ARGO-YBJ is a 'full coverage' air shower detector consisting of a 6700 m{sup 2} carpet of Resistive Plate Counters, located at Yangbajing (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l). Its large field of view ({approx}2 sr, limited only by the atmospheric absorption) and high duty-cycle make ARGO-YBJ particularly suitable to detect unpredictable and short duration events such as GRBs. ARGO-YBJ works using two techniques: the 'Scaler Mode', which reaches the lower energy limit ({approx}1 GeV) of the detector, and the 'Shower Mode', with an energy threshold of a few hundreds of GeV. Here we present the results of the search formore » high-energy emission from GRBs in coincidence with satellite detections.« less
  • Milagro is a wide field (2 sr) high duty cycle (>90%) ground-based water Cherenkov detector built to observe extensive air showers produced by high energy particles interacting in the Earth's atmosphere. Milagro records extensive air showers in the energy range 100 GeV to 100 TeV, as well as the counting rates of the individual photomultiplier tubes in the detector. The individual tube counting rates can be used to detect transient emission above {approx}1 GeV. We have used the counting rate (scaler) data to search for high energy emission from a sample of 98 gamma-ray bursts (GRB) detected from January 2000more » through June 2006 by BATSE, BeppoSax, HETE-2, INTEGRAL, Swift or the IPN. No evidence for emission from any of the bursts has been found, and we present fluence upper limits from these bursts.« less
  • Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) have been detected at GeV energies by EGRET and models predict emission at > 100 GeV. Milagro is a wide field (2 sr) high duty cycle (> 90%) ground based water Cherenkov detector that records extensive air showers in the energy range 100 GeV to 100 TeV. We have searched for very high energy emission from a sample of 106 gamma-ray bursts (GRB) detected since the beginning of 2000 by BATSE, BeppoSax, HETE-2, INTEGRAL, Swift or the IPN. No evidence for emission from any of the bursts has been found and we present upper limits from thesemore » bursts.« less
  • Milagro is a water Cherenkov extensive air shower array that continuously views the entire overhead sky and is sensitive to gamma rays with energies near 1 TeV. Prior to this work, EGRET had observed the highest energy gamma rays from the Galactic plane. In the direction of the inner Galaxy and at energies between 1 GeV and 30 GeV, EGRET measured a gamma-ray spectral index of approximately {alpha}{gamma} = 2.4, harder than the cosmic-ray spectrum. The shape and intensity of the spectrum beyond EGRET energies is sensitive to the production and propagation of cosmic rays. Here we report the detectionmore » of the TeV gamma rays from the region of the Milagro inner Galaxy ({+-}5 deg. Galactic latitude and (40 deg., 100 deg.) Galactic longitude) with a significance of 5{sigma}. The integral flux is estimated to be {phi}{gamma}(E > 1TeV) = (5.7 {+-} 2.0) {center_dot} 10-10 (ster-1cm-2sec-1) assuming a differential power law spectral index of 2.7 and an EGRET-like source distribution. Comparison with EGRET's data from the same part of the Galaxy may be used to constrain models of cosmic-ray production in the Galaxy.« less