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Title: In vitro inhibition of OATP-mediated uptake of phalloidin using bile acid derivatives

Abstract

Hepatocyte uptake of phalloidin is carried out mainly by OATP1B1. We have used this compound as a prototypic substrate and assayed the ability to inhibit OATP-mediated phalloidin transport of four bile acid derivatives (BALU-1, BALU-2, BALU-3 and BALU-4) that showed positive results in preliminary screening. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes for heterologous expression of transporters, BALUs were found to inhibit taurocholic acid (TCA) transport by OATP1B1 (but not OATP1B3) as well as by rat Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4 and Oatp1b2. The study of their ability to inhibit sodium-dependent bile acid transporters revealed that the four BALUs induced an inhibition of rat Asbt-mediated TCA transport, which was similar to TCA-induced self-inhibition. Regarding human NTCP and rat Ntcp, BALU-1 differs from the other three BALUS in its lack of effect on TCA transport by these proteins. Using HPLC-MS/MS and CHO cells stably expressing OATP1B1 the ability of BALU-1 to inhibit the uptake of phalloidin itself by this transporter was confirmed. Kinetic analysis using X. laevis oocytes revealed that BALU-1-induced inhibition of OATP1B1 was mainly due to a competitive mechanism (Ki = 8 {mu}M). In conclusion, BALU-1 may be useful as a pharmacological tool to inhibit the uptake of compounds mainly taken up by OATP1B1 presumablymore » without impairing bile acid uptake by the major carrier accounting for this process, i.e., NTCP.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]; ;  [1];  [3]
  1. Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting, CIBERehd, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain)
  2. Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Campus of Lugo, University of Santiago (Spain)
  3. Laboratory of Experimental Hepatology and Drug Targeting, CIBERehd, University of Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain), E-mail: jjgmarin@usal.es
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21272622
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 239; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2009.04.024; PII: S0041-008X(09)00204-X; Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BILE ACIDS; CARRIERS; ESTRADIOL; HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY; MYCOTOXINS; OOCYTES; POLYPEPTIDES; RATS; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Herraez, Elisa, Macias, Rocio I.R., Vazquez-Tato, Jose, Vicens, Marta, Monte, Maria J., and Marin, Jose J.G.. In vitro inhibition of OATP-mediated uptake of phalloidin using bile acid derivatives. United States: N. p., 2009. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2009.04.024.
Herraez, Elisa, Macias, Rocio I.R., Vazquez-Tato, Jose, Vicens, Marta, Monte, Maria J., & Marin, Jose J.G.. In vitro inhibition of OATP-mediated uptake of phalloidin using bile acid derivatives. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2009.04.024.
Herraez, Elisa, Macias, Rocio I.R., Vazquez-Tato, Jose, Vicens, Marta, Monte, Maria J., and Marin, Jose J.G.. 2009. "In vitro inhibition of OATP-mediated uptake of phalloidin using bile acid derivatives". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2009.04.024.
@article{osti_21272622,
title = {In vitro inhibition of OATP-mediated uptake of phalloidin using bile acid derivatives},
author = {Herraez, Elisa and Macias, Rocio I.R. and Vazquez-Tato, Jose and Vicens, Marta and Monte, Maria J. and Marin, Jose J.G.},
abstractNote = {Hepatocyte uptake of phalloidin is carried out mainly by OATP1B1. We have used this compound as a prototypic substrate and assayed the ability to inhibit OATP-mediated phalloidin transport of four bile acid derivatives (BALU-1, BALU-2, BALU-3 and BALU-4) that showed positive results in preliminary screening. Using Xenopus laevis oocytes for heterologous expression of transporters, BALUs were found to inhibit taurocholic acid (TCA) transport by OATP1B1 (but not OATP1B3) as well as by rat Oatp1a1, Oatp1a4 and Oatp1b2. The study of their ability to inhibit sodium-dependent bile acid transporters revealed that the four BALUs induced an inhibition of rat Asbt-mediated TCA transport, which was similar to TCA-induced self-inhibition. Regarding human NTCP and rat Ntcp, BALU-1 differs from the other three BALUS in its lack of effect on TCA transport by these proteins. Using HPLC-MS/MS and CHO cells stably expressing OATP1B1 the ability of BALU-1 to inhibit the uptake of phalloidin itself by this transporter was confirmed. Kinetic analysis using X. laevis oocytes revealed that BALU-1-induced inhibition of OATP1B1 was mainly due to a competitive mechanism (Ki = 8 {mu}M). In conclusion, BALU-1 may be useful as a pharmacological tool to inhibit the uptake of compounds mainly taken up by OATP1B1 presumably without impairing bile acid uptake by the major carrier accounting for this process, i.e., NTCP.},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2009.04.024},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 1,
volume = 239,
place = {United States},
year = 2009,
month = 8
}
  • Phalloidin causes severe liver damage characterized by marked cholestasis, which is due in part to irreversible polymerization of actin filaments. Liver uptake of this toxin through the transporter OATP1B1 is inhibited by the bile acid derivative BALU-1, which does not inhibit the sodium-dependent bile acid transporter NTCP. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether BALU-1 prevents liver uptake of phalloidin without impairing endogenous bile acid handling and hence may have protective effects against the hepatotoxicity induced by this toxin. In anaesthetized rats, i.v. administration of BALU-1 increased bile flow more than taurocholic acid (TCA). Phalloidin administration decreasedmore » basal (- 60%) and TCA-stimulated bile flow (- 55%) without impairing bile acid output. Phalloidin-induced cholestasis was accompanied by liver necrosis, nephrotoxicity and haematuria. In BALU-1-treated animals, phalloidin-induced cholestasis was partially prevented. Moreover haematuria was not observed, which was consistent with histological evidences of BALU-1-prevented injury of liver and kidney tissue. HPLC-MS/MS analysis revealed that BALU-1 was secreted in bile mainly in non-conjugated form, although a small proportion (< 5%) of tauro-BALU-1 was detected. BALU-1 did not inhibit the biliary secretion of endogenous bile acids. When highly choleretic bile acids, - ursodeoxycholic (UDCA) and dehydrocholic acid (DHCA) - were administered, they were found less efficient than BALU-1 in preventing phalloidin-induced cholestasis. Biliary phalloidin elimination was low but it was increased by BALU-1 > TCA > DHCA > UDCA. In conclusion, BALU-1 is able to protect against phalloidin-induced hepatotoxicity, probably due to an inhibition of the liver uptake and an enhanced biliary secretion of this toxin.« less
  • The cellular mechanisms responsible for the lipoprotein-mediated stimulation of bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes were investigated. Adding 280 micrograms/ml of cholesterol in the form of human or rat low density lipoprotein (LDL) to the culture medium increased bile acid synthesis by 1.8- and 1.6-fold, respectively. As a result of the uptake of LDL, the synthesis of (14C)cholesterol from (2-14C)acetate was decreased and cellular cholesteryl ester mass was increased. Further studies demonstrated that rat apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich high density lipoprotein (HDL) both stimulated bile acid synthesis 1.5-fold, as well as inhibited the formation of (14C)cholesterol from (2-14C)acetate. Reductivemore » methylation of LDL blocked the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis, as well as the stimulation of bile acid synthesis, suggesting that these processes require receptor-mediated uptake. To identify the receptors responsible, competitive binding studies using 125I-labeled apoE-free LDL and 125I-labeled apoE-rich HDL were performed. Both apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL displayed an equal ability to compete for binding of the other, suggesting that a receptor or a group of receptors that recognizes both apolipoproteins is involved. Additional studies show that hepatocytes from cholestyramine-treated rats displayed 2.2- and 3.4-fold increases in the binding of apoE-free LDL and apoE-rich HDL, respectively. These data show for the first time that receptor-mediated uptake of LDL by the liver is intimately linked to processes activating bile acid synthesis.« less
  • To define further the structural specificity of the taurocholate uptake site, the authors studied the ability of a variety of taurine-conjugated bile acids with differing hydroxyl substituents on the sterol moiety to inhibit (/sup 14/C) taurocholate uptake. Rat hepatocytes isolated by collagenase perfusion were incubated in a tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane-phosphate buffer containing (/sup 14/C)taurocholate in the presence or absence of inhibitor bile acid. Stronger inhibitors were studied at a fixed concentration of 5 ..mu..M, weaker ones at 25 ..mu..M. Initial uptake velocity was measured. Uptake velocity could then be related to taurocholate concentration and a V/sub max/ and K/sub m/more » could be determined by applying a nonlinear least squares fit to the data obtained with or without inhibitor. The kinetic parameters allowed the determination of the type of inhibition and of inhibition constants (K/sub i/) of the various test bile acids. The data indicate that bile acids containing a 6- or 7-OH group exhibit competitive inhibition, whereas bile acids with no 6- or 7-OH group exhibit noncompetitive inhibition. Of the compounds exhibiting competitive inhibition, K/sub i/ varied with the number of hydroxyl groups on the sterol moiety. They conclude that the presence of absence of a 6- or 7-OH group dictates the mechanism of inhibition; the number of hydroxyl substituents determines the potency of competitive inhibition.« less
  • Clinical investigations of laser photobioactivation, or biostimulation, might be differently designed and more fruitful if knowledge of basic biochemical mechanisms were better understood. In this investigation, biochemical events identified as responses to 904 nm irradiation included increased ascorbic acid uptake by fibroblasts. These cells also showed increased hydroxyproline formation, and this was increased several-fold by the addition of proline to the medium. Maximum biochemical responses were observed at a pulse frequency of 67 Hz and a pulse width of 150 nsec with an energy density of approximately 7 mJ/cm2 per exposure. Elements in the mitochondrial cytochrome system are proposed asmore » the radiation absorbing chromophore(s). Hypothetically, the energy generated is linked to ascorbic acid uptake, which in turn stimulates collagen synthesis.« less