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Title: Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs

Abstract

Reprocessing and recycling open the road to a sustainable management of nuclear materials and an environment friendly management of nuclear waste. However, long or very long term recycling implies fast neutron reactors. High burn-ups of irradiated standard UO{sub 2} fuel as well as recycling of plutonium fuel in thermal reactors lead to a 'degradation' of plutonium that means a low fissile content, which is hardly compatible with recycling in LWRs. Thus the question of plutonium management has been raised; although there are some limitations, a truly large variety of options do exist; no one of the presently selected ways of plutonium management is a dead end road. Among these various options, some are fully compatible with the existing reactors and may be considered for the mid term future; they offer a competitive management of plutonium during the transition from thermal to fast reactors. (authors)

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. COGEMA, DRD, 2 rue Paul Dautier 78141 Velizy - Villacoublay Cedex (France)
  2. SERMA, CEA Saclay (France)
  3. SPRC - CEA Cadarache (France)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
American Nuclear Society, 555 North Kensington Avenue, La Grange Park, IL 60526 (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
21167857
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: ICAPP'02: 2002 International congress on advances in nuclear power plants, Hollywood, FL (United States), 9-13 Jun 2002; Other Information: Country of input: France
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; ENVIRONMENT; FAST NEUTRONS; FAST REACTORS; IRRADIATION; MANAGEMENT; NUCLEAR FUELS; PLUTONIUM; PWR TYPE REACTORS; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; RECYCLING; REPROCESSING; URANIUM DIOXIDE

Citation Formats

Nigon, Jean-Louis, Lenain, Richard, and Zaetta, Alain. Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs. United States: N. p., 2002. Web.
Nigon, Jean-Louis, Lenain, Richard, & Zaetta, Alain. Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs. United States.
Nigon, Jean-Louis, Lenain, Richard, and Zaetta, Alain. Mon . "Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_21167857,
title = {Plutonium Multiple Recycling In PWRs},
author = {Nigon, Jean-Louis and Lenain, Richard and Zaetta, Alain},
abstractNote = {Reprocessing and recycling open the road to a sustainable management of nuclear materials and an environment friendly management of nuclear waste. However, long or very long term recycling implies fast neutron reactors. High burn-ups of irradiated standard UO{sub 2} fuel as well as recycling of plutonium fuel in thermal reactors lead to a 'degradation' of plutonium that means a low fissile content, which is hardly compatible with recycling in LWRs. Thus the question of plutonium management has been raised; although there are some limitations, a truly large variety of options do exist; no one of the presently selected ways of plutonium management is a dead end road. Among these various options, some are fully compatible with the existing reactors and may be considered for the mid term future; they offer a competitive management of plutonium during the transition from thermal to fast reactors. (authors)},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2002},
month = {Mon Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2002}
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • Plutonium recycling is an important policy for saving natural uranium resources in Japan. In March 1988, four demonstration mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies were loaded at Mihama Unit 1 and irradiated for three cycles. Mihama Unit 1 is a two-loop type pressurized water reactor (PWR) plant of Kansai Electric Power Company and was loaded with 121 fuel assemblies of the 14 [times] 14 type. This paper reviews the first plutonium recycle experience in a Japanese PWR plant and reports on verification of our standard nuclear design methodology applied to MOX fuel.
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  • Presented is an investigation of the utilization of Tristructural-Isotropic (TRISO) particle-based fuel designs for the recycling of transuranic (TRU) wastes in typical Westinghouse four-loop pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Though numerous studies have evaluated the recycling of TRU in light water reactors (LWRs), this work differentiates itself by employing TRU-loaded TRISO particles embedded within a SiC matrix and formed into pellets that can be loaded into standard 17 x 17 fuel element cladding. This approach provides the capability of TRU recycling and, by virtue of the TRISO particle design, will allow for greater burnup (i.e., removal of the need for UO2more » mixing) and improved fuel reliability. In this study, a variety of assembly layouts and core loading patterns were analyzed to demonstrate the feasibility of TRU-loaded TRISO fuel. The assembly and core design herein reported are a work in progress, so they still require some fine-tuning to further flatten power peaks; however, the progress achieved thus far strongly supports the conclusion that with further rod/assembly/core loading and placement optimization, TRU-loaded TRISO fuel and core designs that are capable of balancing TRU production and destruction can be designed within the standard constraints for thermal and reactivity performance in PWRs.« less
  • Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermalmore » spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)« less