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Title: Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure

Abstract

Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPxmore » activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The significantly lower GSH level (p<0.05) determined in the group of retired miners (9.64{+-}1.45) seems to be age-related (r=-0.39, p=0.001). Thus, the moderate but significantly increased GSH level, GR and CAT activity in erythrocytes in the subgroup of miners observed in the period after exposure to Hg{sup o} could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [3];  [2]
  1. University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia), E-mail: abkobal@volja.net
  2. University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Njegoseva 4, SI-1525 Ljubljana (Slovenia)
  3. Department of Environmental Sciences, Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21130759
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Research; Journal Volume: 107; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 8. international conference on mercury as a global pollutant (IGMCP): Human health and exposure to methylmercury, Madison, WI (United States), 6-11 Aug 2006; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2007.07.001; PII: S0013-9351(07)00141-7; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ABSORPTION; BODY BURDEN; CATALASE; ENZYME ACTIVITY; ERYTHROCYTES; GLUTATHIONE; MERCURY; MINERS; OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE

Citation Formats

Kobal, Alfred Bogomir, Prezelj, Marija, Horvat, Milena, Krsnik, Mladen, Gibicar, Darija, and Osredkar, Josko. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2007.07.001.
Kobal, Alfred Bogomir, Prezelj, Marija, Horvat, Milena, Krsnik, Mladen, Gibicar, Darija, & Osredkar, Josko. Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure. United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2007.07.001.
Kobal, Alfred Bogomir, Prezelj, Marija, Horvat, Milena, Krsnik, Mladen, Gibicar, Darija, and Osredkar, Josko. 2008. "Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure". United States. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2007.07.001.
@article{osti_21130759,
title = {Glutathione level after long-term occupational elemental mercury exposure},
author = {Kobal, Alfred Bogomir and Prezelj, Marija and Horvat, Milena and Krsnik, Mladen and Gibicar, Darija and Osredkar, Josko},
abstractNote = {Many in vitro and in vivo studies have elucidated the interaction of inorganic mercury (Hg) and glutathione. However, human studies are limited. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of remote long-term intermittent occupational elemental Hg vapour (Hg{sup o}) exposure on erythrocyte glutathione levels and some antioxidative enzyme activities in ex-mercury miners in the period after exposure. The study included 49 ex-mercury miners divided into subgroups of 28 still active, Hg{sup o}-not-exposed miners and 21 elderly retired miners, and 41 controls, age-matched to the miners subgroup. The control workers were taken from 'mercury-free works'. Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized disulphide glutathione (GSSG) concentrations in haemolysed erythrocytes were determined by capillary electrophoresis, while total glutathione (total GSH) and the GSH/GSSG ratio were calculated from the determined values. Catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in erythrocytes were measured using commercially available reagent kits, while urine Hg (U-Hg) concentrations were determined by cold vapour atomic absorption (CVAAS). No correlation of present U-Hg levels, GSH, GSSG, and antioxidative enzymes with remote occupational biological exposure indices were found. The mean CAT activity in miners and retired miners was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the controls. No differences in mean GPx activity among the three groups were found, whereas the mean GR activity was significantly higher (p<0.05) in miners than in retired miners. The mean concentrations of GSH (mmol/g Hb) in miners (13.03{+-}3.71) were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control group (11.68{+-}2.66). No differences in mean total GSH, GSSG levels, and GSH/GSSG ratio between miners and controls were found. A positive correlation between GSSG and present U-Hg excretion (r=0.41, p=0.001) in the whole group of ex-mercury miners was observed. The significantly lower GSH level (p<0.05) determined in the group of retired miners (9.64{+-}1.45) seems to be age-related (r=-0.39, p=0.001). Thus, the moderate but significantly increased GSH level, GR and CAT activity in erythrocytes in the subgroup of miners observed in the period after exposure to Hg{sup o} could be an inductive and additive response to maintain the balance between GSH and antioxidative enzymes in interaction with the Hg body burden accumulated during remote occupational exposure, which does not represent a severely increased oxidative stress.},
doi = {10.1016/j.envres.2007.07.001},
journal = {Environmental Research},
number = 1,
volume = 107,
place = {United States},
year = 2008,
month = 5
}
  • One hundred and twenty female mice fed diets containing various levels of vitamin E were continuously exposed to 0.5 ppM, 1.0 ppM nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), and filtered air for 17 months. Blood, lung, and liver tissues were assayed for glutathione peroxidase (GSH-peroxidase) activity. Exposure to 0.5 ppM NO/sub 2/ did not affect blood and lung GSH-peroxidase activity; 1.0 ppM NO/sub 2/ exposure however, caused suppression of the enzyme. A combination of vitamin E deficiency and 1.0 ppM NO/sub 2/ exposure resulted in the lowest GSH-peroxidase activities in the blood and lung. High levels of vitamin E in the dietmore » resulted in elevated GSH-peroxidase in the blood and lung. Liver GSH-peroxidase activity was unaffected by either dietary vitamin E or NO/sub 2/ exposure.« less
  • Purpose: To explore whether certain glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer or the level of radiation-induced adverse effects after two fractionation patterns of adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The prevalence of germline polymorphic variants in GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 was determined in 272 breast cancer patients and compared with that in a control group of 270 women from the general population with no known history of breast cancer. The genetic variants were determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme fragment analysis. In 253 of the patients surveyed for radiotherapy-induced sidemore » effects after a median observation time of 13.7 years (range, 7-22.8 years), the genotypes were related to the long-term effects observed after two fractionation patterns (treatment A, 4.3 Gy in 10 fractions for 156 patients; and treatment B, 2.5 Gy in 20 fractions for 97; both administered within a 5-week period). Results: None of the GST polymorphisms conferred an increased risk of breast cancer, either alone or in combination. Compared with treatment B, treatment A was followed by an increased level of moderate to severe radiation-induced side effects for all the endpoints studied (i.e., degree of telangiectasia, subcutaneous fibrosis and atrophy, lung fibrosis, costal fractures, and pleural thickening; p <0.001 for all endpoints). A significant association was found between the level of pleural thickening and the GSTP1 Ile105Val variant. Conclusion: The results of this study have illustrated the impact of hypofractionation on the level of adverse effects and indicated that the specific alleles of GSTP1, M1, and T1 studied here may be significant in determining the level of adverse effects after radiotherapy.« less
  • The decrease in mercury (Hg) levels in whole blood (B), plasma (P), erythrocytes (Ery), and urine (U) was investigated in nine men after 3 d of intense (> 100 {mu}g/m3) exposure to metallic Hg vapor. In a model in which common half-times for all subjects were used, the best fit for B-Hg was obtained with half-times of 3.1 d for a fast phase and 18 d for a slow phase. P-Hg seemed to decay more rapidly than Ery-Hg. Peak U-Hg (morning, creatinine-corrected samples) was not observed until 2-3 wk after exposure. Thereafter, the median half-time was 40 d (assuming individualmore » one-compartment models). In a model for which common half-times were used, the point estimates were 59 d for a one-compartment model and 28 and 141 for a two-compartment model. The fractions of the fast phases (i.e, two-compartment models with common half-times) were 80% for B-Hg and 84% for U-Hg.« less
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  • Hematology is used as an index of health status in a number of fish species. Hematological changes have been detected following different types of stress conditions like exposure to pollutants, diseases, hypoxia, etc. Copper and mercury are two known aquatic pollutants. Though copper is an essential micro-nutrient, it is highly toxic at high concentrations. Mercury has no biological function to serve and causes serious impairment in the metabolic and physiological functions of the body. In this paper hematocrit and hemoglobin (Hb) values in the fish Oreochromis mossambicus separately exposed to two different sublethal concentrations of copper and mercury for amore » period of 168 h are reported.« less