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Title: Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning

Abstract

Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo II{alpha} activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC{sub 50} of 0.9 {mu}M, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC{sub 50} of 9.6 {mu}M, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 {mu}M. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC{sub 50} about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damagemore » induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]; ; ;  [1];  [1];  [5]
  1. Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)
  2. (China)
  3. Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan (China)
  4. Institute of Chemistry, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)
  5. (China), E-mail: sblin@ntu.edu.tw
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21077948
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 227; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2007.11.014; PII: S0041-008X(07)00516-9; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANTINEOPLASTIC DRUGS; APOPTOSIS; BLOOD; DNA; DNA DAMAGES; INTRAPERITONEAL INJECTION; LACQUERS; LEUKEMIA; POISONING; RATS; TOXICITY; TRIOCTYLPHOSPHINE OXIDE

Citation Formats

Huang, C.-P., Fang, W.-H., Lin, L.-I., Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Chiou, Robin Y., Kan, L.-S., Chi, N.-H., Chen, Y.-R., Lin, T.-Y., Lin, S.-B., and Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning. United States: N. p., 2008. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2007.11.014.
Huang, C.-P., Fang, W.-H., Lin, L.-I., Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Chiou, Robin Y., Kan, L.-S., Chi, N.-H., Chen, Y.-R., Lin, T.-Y., Lin, S.-B., & Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2007.11.014.
Huang, C.-P., Fang, W.-H., Lin, L.-I., Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Chiou, Robin Y., Kan, L.-S., Chi, N.-H., Chen, Y.-R., Lin, T.-Y., Lin, S.-B., and Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan. Sat . "Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2007.11.014.
@article{osti_21077948,
title = {Anticancer activity of botanical alkyl hydroquinones attributed to topoisomerase II poisoning},
author = {Huang, C.-P. and Fang, W.-H. and Lin, L.-I. and Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan and Chiou, Robin Y. and Kan, L.-S. and Chi, N.-H. and Chen, Y.-R. and Lin, T.-Y. and Lin, S.-B. and Department of Laboratory Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan},
abstractNote = {Cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds have been isolated from many plants. We previously isolated 3 structurally similar cytotoxic alkyl hydroquinone compounds from the sap of the lacquer tree Rhus succedanea L. belonging to the sumac family, which have a long history of medicinal use in Asia. Each has an unsaturated alkyl chain attached to the 2-position of a hydroquinone ring. One of these isolates, 10'(Z),13'(E),15'(E)-heptadecatrienylhydroquinone [HQ17(3)], being the most cytotoxic, was chosen for studying the anticancer mechanism of these compounds. We found that HQ17(3) was a topoisomerase (Topo) II poison. It irreversibly inhibited Topo II{alpha} activity through the accumulation of Topo II-DNA cleavable complexes. A cell-based assay showed that HQ17(3) inhibited the growth of leukemia HL-60 cells with an EC{sub 50} of 0.9 {mu}M, inhibited the topoisomerase-II-deficient cells HL-60/MX2 with an EC{sub 50} of 9.6 {mu}M, and exerted no effect on peripheral blood mononuclear cells at concentrations up to 50 {mu}M. These results suggest that Topo II is the cellular drug target. In HL-60 cells, HQ17(3) promptly inhibited DNA synthesis, induced chromosomal breakage, and led to cell death with an EC{sub 50} about one-tenth that of hydroquinone. Pretreatment of the cells with N-acetylcysteine could not attenuate the cytotoxicity and DNA damage induced by HQ17(3). However, N-acetylcysteine did significantly reduce the cytotoxicity of hydroquinone. In F344 rats, intraperitoneal injection of HQ17(3) for 28 days induced no clinical signs of toxicity. These results indicated that HQ17(3) is a potential anticancer agent, and its structural features could be a model for anticancer drug design.},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2007.11.014},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 3,
volume = 227,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2008},
month = {Sat Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2008}
}
  • Mitoxantrone-resistant variants of the human HL-60 leukemia cell line are cross-resistant to several natural product and synthetic antineoplastic agents. The resistant cells (HL-60/MX2) retain sensitivity to the Vinca alkaloids vincristine and vinblastine, drugs that are typically associated with the classical multidrug resistance phenotype. Mitoxantrone accumulation and retention are equivalent in the sensitive and resistant cell types, suggesting that mitoxantrone resistance inn HL-60/MX2 cells might be associated with an alteration in the type II DNA topoisomerases. The authors discovered that topoisomerase II catalytic activity in 1.0 M NaCl nuclear extracts from the HL-60/MX2 variant was reduced 4- to 5-fold compared tomore » that in the parental HL-60 cells. Studies were designed to minimize the proteolytic degradation of the topoisomerase II enzymes by extraction of whole cells with hot SDS. When nuclear extracts from the two cell types were normalized for equivalent catalytic activity, mitoxantrone inhibited the decatenation of kDNA by these extracts to an equal extent but levels of mitoxantrone-induced cleavage of {sup 32}P-labeled pBR322 DNA by nuclear extracts from HL-60/MX2 cells were 3- to 4-fold lower than in comparable HL-60 extracts. Resistance to the topoisomerase II inhibitor mitoxantrone in HL-60/MX2 is associated with reduced nuclear and whole cell topoisomerase II catalytic activity, immunologically undetectable levels of the 180-kDa topoisomerase II isozyme, and reduced mitoxantrone-induced cleavage of radiolabeled DNA by topoisomerase II in nuclear extracts from these cells.« less
  • No abstract prepared.
  • The aminothiol 2-[(aminopropyl)amino]ethanethiol (WR-1065) is the active thiol of the clinically studied radioprotective agent S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid (WR-2721). WR-1065 is an effective radiation protector when it is administered 30 min prior to exposure of Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells to radiation (i.e., a dose modification factor of 1.4) at a concentration of 4 mM. Under these exposure conditions, topoisomerase (Topo) I and II[alpha] activities and associated protein contents were measured in cells of the K1 cell line using the DNA relaxation assay, the P4 unknotting assay and immunoblotting, respectively. WR-1065 was ineffective in modifying Topo I activity, but it did notmore » reduce Topo II[alpha] activity by an average of 50%. The magnitude of Topo II[alpha] protein content however, was not affected by these exposure conditions. The effects on the cell cycle were monitored by the method of flow cytometry. Exposure of cells to 4 mM WR-1065 for up to 6 h resulted in a build-up of cells in the g[sub 2]/M-phase compartment. However, under these conditions and in contrast to Topo II inhibitors used in chemotherapy, WR-1065 is an effective radioprotective agent capable of protecting against both radiation-induced cell lethality and mutagenesis. One of several mechanisms of action attributed to aminothiol compounds such as WR-1065 has been their ability to affect endogenous enzymatic reactions involved in DNA synthesis and repair and progression of cells through the phases of the cell cycle. These results are consistent with such a proposed mechanism and demonstrate in particular a modifying effect by WR-1065 on Topo II, which is involved in DNA synthesis. 54 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • The authors have used both a quantitative filter binding assay and a decatenation assay to measure DNA topoisomerase II activity. The filter binding assay, which measures catenating activity, is able to detect topoisomerase II activity at 50-100-fold lower protein concentrations than the decatenation assay. Because of this remarkable sensitivity, they have been able to quantitate topoisomerase II activity in a variety of normal and neoplastic human tissues. The highest level of enzyme activity in normal tissues was found in the spleen and thymus. The highest level of enzyme activity in neoplasms was found in those that clinically behave in anmore » aggressive manner and had a high proliferative status by flow cytometry. Surprisingly, these high topoisomerase II values in the neoplastic specimens are in the same range of values found in normal nonproliferating tissue. Since much previous data indicate that the enzyme is apparently a property of only proliferating cells, this finding might suggest that human tissues contain more than one form of the enzyme. The finding that 35-65% of the topoisomerase II activity in human tissues is resistant to teniposide suggests that more than one enzyme form exists.« less
  • Highlights: {yields} A topoisomerase-I inhibitor, camptothecin, exhibited synergistically toxicity with 15d-PGJ{sub 2}. {yields} The combination of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} and a topoisomerase-II inhibitor, doxorubicine, did not cause synergistic cell growth inhibition. {yields} A PPAR{gamma} antagonist did not prevent Caki-2 from undergoing 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity. {yields} The treatment of camptothecin combined with 15d-PGJ{sub 2} activated caspase-3 more than the separate treatment. -- Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is chemoresistant cancer. Although several clinical trials were conducted to explore effective medications, the chemoresistance of RCC has not yet been conquered. An endogenous ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), 15-deoxy-{Delta}{sup 12,14}-prostaglandin J{sub 2} (15d-PGJ{submore » 2}), induces apoptosis in RCC. Here, we examined synergistic effects of several carcinostatics on the anti-tumor activity of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} in Caki-2 cell line by MTT assay. A topoisomerase-I inhibitor, camptothecin (CPT), exhibited synergistically toxicity with 15d-PGJ{sub 2}, but neither 5-fluorouracil nor cisplatin did. The combination of 15d-PGJ{sub 2} and a topoisomerase-II inhibitor, doxorubicine, did not cause synergistic cell growth inhibition. The synergistic effect of topoisomerase-I and II inhibitors was not also detected. A PPAR{gamma} antagonist, GW9662, did not prevent Caki-2 from undergoing 15d-PGJ{sub 2}-induced cytotoxicity. The treatment of CPT combined with 15d-PGJ{sub 2} activated caspase-3 more than the separate treatment. These results suggest that 15d-PGJ{sub 2} exhibited the anti-tumor activity synergistically with CPT independent of topoisomerase-II and PPAR{gamma}.« less