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Title: Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Local Recurrence After Radiation Therapy Occurs at the Site of Primary Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Step-Section Pathology Evidence

Abstract

Purpose: To determine whether prostate cancer local recurrence after radiation therapy (RT) occurs at the site of primary tumor by retrospectively comparing the tumor location on pre-RT and post-RT magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and using step-section pathology after salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) as the reference standard. Methods and Materials: Nine patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with intensity modulated RT (69-86.4 Gy), and had pre-RT and post-RT prostate MRI, biopsy-proven local recurrence, and SRP. The location and volume of lesions on pre-RT and post-RT MRI were correlated with step-section pathology findings. Tumor foci >0.2 cm{sup 3} and/or resulting in extraprostatic disease on pathology were considered clinically significant. Results: All nine significant tumor foci (one in each patient; volume range, 0.22-8.63 cm{sup 3}) were detected both on pre-RT and post-RT MRI and displayed strikingly similar appearances on pre-RT and post-RT MRI and step-section pathology. Two clinically insignificant tumor foci ({<=}0.06 cm{sup 3}) were not detected on imaging. The ratios between tumor volumes on pathology and on post-RT MRI ranged from 0.52 to 2.80. Conclusions: Our study provides a direct visual confirmation that clinically significant post-RT local recurrence occurs at the site of primary tumor. Our results are in agreement withmore » reported clinical and pathologic results and support the current practice of boosting the radiation dose within the primary tumor using imaging guidance. They also suggest that monitoring of primary tumor with pre-RT and post-RT MRI could lead to early detection of local recurrence amenable to salvage treatment.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6]; ;  [4];  [7]
  1. Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States), E-mail: pucard@mskcc.org
  2. Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)
  3. (United States)
  4. Department of Urology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)
  5. (Japan)
  6. Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)
  7. Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
21036199
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 69; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.03.065; PII: S0360-3016(07)00674-8; Copyright (c) 2007 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BIOPSY; CARCINOMAS; NMR IMAGING; PATHOLOGY; PATIENTS; PROSTATE; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Pucar, Darko, Hricak, Hedvig, Shukla-Dave, Amita, Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, Kuroiwa, Kentaro, Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Drobnjak, Marija, Eastham, James, Scardino, Peter T., and Zelefsky, Michael J. Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Local Recurrence After Radiation Therapy Occurs at the Site of Primary Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Step-Section Pathology Evidence. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.03.065.
Pucar, Darko, Hricak, Hedvig, Shukla-Dave, Amita, Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, Kuroiwa, Kentaro, Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Drobnjak, Marija, Eastham, James, Scardino, Peter T., & Zelefsky, Michael J. Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Local Recurrence After Radiation Therapy Occurs at the Site of Primary Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Step-Section Pathology Evidence. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.03.065.
Pucar, Darko, Hricak, Hedvig, Shukla-Dave, Amita, Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, Kuroiwa, Kentaro, Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Drobnjak, Marija, Eastham, James, Scardino, Peter T., and Zelefsky, Michael J. 2007. "Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Local Recurrence After Radiation Therapy Occurs at the Site of Primary Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Step-Section Pathology Evidence". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.03.065.
@article{osti_21036199,
title = {Clinically Significant Prostate Cancer Local Recurrence After Radiation Therapy Occurs at the Site of Primary Tumor: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Step-Section Pathology Evidence},
author = {Pucar, Darko and Hricak, Hedvig and Shukla-Dave, Amita and Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY and Kuroiwa, Kentaro and Department of Urology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka and Drobnjak, Marija and Eastham, James and Scardino, Peter T. and Zelefsky, Michael J.},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To determine whether prostate cancer local recurrence after radiation therapy (RT) occurs at the site of primary tumor by retrospectively comparing the tumor location on pre-RT and post-RT magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and using step-section pathology after salvage radical prostatectomy (SRP) as the reference standard. Methods and Materials: Nine patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with intensity modulated RT (69-86.4 Gy), and had pre-RT and post-RT prostate MRI, biopsy-proven local recurrence, and SRP. The location and volume of lesions on pre-RT and post-RT MRI were correlated with step-section pathology findings. Tumor foci >0.2 cm{sup 3} and/or resulting in extraprostatic disease on pathology were considered clinically significant. Results: All nine significant tumor foci (one in each patient; volume range, 0.22-8.63 cm{sup 3}) were detected both on pre-RT and post-RT MRI and displayed strikingly similar appearances on pre-RT and post-RT MRI and step-section pathology. Two clinically insignificant tumor foci ({<=}0.06 cm{sup 3}) were not detected on imaging. The ratios between tumor volumes on pathology and on post-RT MRI ranged from 0.52 to 2.80. Conclusions: Our study provides a direct visual confirmation that clinically significant post-RT local recurrence occurs at the site of primary tumor. Our results are in agreement with reported clinical and pathologic results and support the current practice of boosting the radiation dose within the primary tumor using imaging guidance. They also suggest that monitoring of primary tumor with pre-RT and post-RT MRI could lead to early detection of local recurrence amenable to salvage treatment.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.03.065},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 69,
place = {United States},
year = 2007,
month = 9
}
  • Purpose: To determine if local recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation therapy occurs at the same site as the primary tumor before treatment, using longitudinal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging to assess dominant tumor location. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study was HIPAA compliant and approved by our Committee on Human Research. We identified all patients in our institutional prostate cancer database (1996 onward) who underwent endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging before radiotherapy for biopsy-proven prostate cancer and again at least 2 years after radiotherapy (n = 124). Two radiologists recorded the presence, location, andmore » size of unequivocal dominant tumor on pre- and postradiotherapy scans. Recurrent tumor was considered to be at the same location as the baseline tumor if at least 50% of the tumor location overlapped. Clinical and biopsy data were collected from all patients. Results: Nine patients had unequivocal dominant tumor on both pre- and postradiotherapy imaging, with mean pre- and postradiotherapy dominant tumor diameters of 1.8 cm (range, 1-2.2) and 1.9 cm (range, 1.4-2.6), respectively. The median follow-up interval was 7.3 years (range, 2.7-10.8). Dominant recurrent tumor was at the same location as dominant baseline tumor in 8 of 9 patients (89%). Conclusions: Local recurrence of prostate cancer after radiation usually occurs at the same site as the dominant primary tumor at baseline, suggesting supplementary focal therapy aimed at enhancing local tumor control would be a rational addition to management.« less
  • Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of {sup 18}F-fluorocholine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FCH-PET/CT), multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), and a combination of both techniques for the detection of local recurrence of prostate cancer initially treated by radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective, single-institution study of 32 patients with suspected prostate cancer recurrence who underwent both FCH-PET/CT and 3T mpMRI within 3 months of one another for the detection of recurrence. All included patients had to be cleared for metastatic recurrence. The reference procedure was systematic 3-dimensional (3D)-transperineal prostate biopsy for the final assessment of local recurrence.more » Both imaging modalities were analyzed by 2 experienced readers blinded to clinical data. The analysis was made per-patient and per-segment using a 4-segment model. Results: The median prostate-specific antigen value at the time of imaging was 2.92 ng/mL. The mean prostate-specific antigen doubling time was 14 months. Of the 32 patients, 31 had a positive 3D-transperineal mapping biopsy for a local relapse. On a patient-based analysis, the detection rate was 71% (22 of 31) for mpMRI and 74% (23 of 31) for FCH-PET/CT. On a segment-based analysis, the sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 32% and 87% for mpMRI, 34% and 87% for FCH-PET/CT, and 43% and 83% for the combined analysis of both techniques. Accuracy was 64%, 65%, and 66%, respectively. The interobserver agreement was κ = 0.92 for FCH-PET/CT and κ = 0.74 for mpMRI. Conclusions: Both mpMRI and FCH-PET/CT show limited sensitivity but good specificity for the detection of local cancer recurrence after radiation therapy, when compared with 3D-transperineal mapping biopsy. Prostate biopsy still seems to be mandatory to diagnose local relapse and select patients who could benefit from local salvage therapy.« less
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine local-regional recurrence (LRR) risk according to whether postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) was used to treat breast cancer patients with clinical T3N0 disease who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and mastectomy. Methodsand Materials: Clinicopathology data from 162 patients with clinical T3N0 breast cancer who received NAC and underwent mastectomy were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 119 patients received PMRT, and 43 patients did not. The median number of axillary lymph nodes (LNs) dissected was 15. Actuarial rates were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Results: At a medianmore » follow-up of 75 months, 15 of 162 patients developed LRR. For all patients, the 5-year LRR rate was 9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4%-14%). The 5-year LRR rate for those who received PMRT was 4% (95% CI, 1%-9%) vs. 24% (95% CI, 10%-39%) for those who did not receive PMRT (p <0.001). A significantly higher proportion of irradiated patients had pathology involved LNs and were {<=}40 years old. Among patients who had pathology involved LNs, the LRR rate was lower in those who received PMRT (p <0.001). A similar trend was observed for those who did not have pathology involved LN disease. Among nonirradiated patients, the appearance of pathologic LN disease after NAC was the only clinicopathologic factor examined that significantly correlated with the risk of LRR. Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with clinical T3N0 disease treated with NAC and mastectomy but without PMRT had a significant risk of LRR, even when there was no pathologic evidence of LN involvement present after NAC. PMRT was effective in reducing the LRR rate. We suggest PMRT should be considered for patients with clinical T3N0 disease.« less
  • Purpose: To determine whether a relationship exists between the tumor volume (TV) or relative choline content determined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) at 3T and the clinical prognostic parameters for patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa). Methods and Materials: A total of 72 men (mean age, 67.8 {+-} 6.2 years) were stratified as having low-risk (n = 26), intermediate-risk (n = 24), or high-risk (n = 22) PCa. MRSI was performed at 3T using a phased-array coil. Spectra are expressed as the total choline/citrate, total choline plus creatine/citrate, and total choline plus polyamines plus creatine/citrate ratios. The mean ratiomore » of the most pathologic voxels and the MRSI-based TV were also determined. Results: The mean values of the total choline/citrate, total choline plus creatine/citrate, and total choline plus polyamine plus creatine/citrate ratios were greater for Stage T2b or greater tumors vs. Stage T2a or less tumors: 7.53 {+-} 13.60 vs. 2.31 {+-} 5.65 (p = .018), 8.98 {+-} 14.58 vs. 2.56 {+-} 5.70 (p = .016), and 10.32 {+-} 15.47 vs. 3.55 {+-} 6.16 (p = .014), respectively. The mean MRSI-based TV for Stage T2b or greater and Stage T2a or less tumors was significantly different (2.23 {+-} 2.62 cm{sup 3} vs. 1.26 {+-} 2.06 cm{sup 3}, respectively; p = .030). This TV correlated with increased prostate-specific antigen levels (odds ratio, 1.293; p = .012). Patients with high-risk PCa had a larger TV than did the patients with intermediate-risk PCa. A similar result was found for the intermediate-risk group compared with the low-risk group (odds ratio, 1.225; p = .041). Conclusion: Biomarkers expressing the relative choline content and TV were significant parameters for the localization of PCa and could be helpful for determining the prognosis more accurately.« less
  • Purpose: To summarize the results of a 4-year period in which endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was considered for all men referred for salvage radiation therapy (RT) at a single academic center; to describe the incidence and location of locally recurrent disease in a contemporary cohort of men with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy (RP), and to identify prognostic variables associated with MRI findings in order to define which patients may have the highest yield of the study. Methods and Materials: Between 2007 and 2011, 88 men without clinically palpable disease underwent eMRI for detectable prostate-specific antigen (PSA) after RP.more » The median interval between RP and eMRI was 32 months (interquartile range, 14-57 months), and the median PSA level was 0.30 ng/mL (interquartile range, 0.19-0.72 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging scans consisting of T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging were evaluated for features consistent with local recurrence. The prostate bed was scored from 0-4, whereby 0 was definitely normal, 1 probably normal, 2 indeterminate, 3 probably abnormal, and 4 definitely abnormal. Local recurrence was defined as having a score of 3-4. Results: Local recurrence was identified in 21 men (24%). Abnormalities were best appreciated on T2-weighted axial images (90%) as focal hypointense lesions. Recurrence locations were perianastomotic (67%) or retrovesical (33%). The only risk factor associated with local recurrence was PSA; recurrence was seen in 37% of men with PSA >0.3 ng/mL vs 13% if PSA {<=}0.3 ng/mL (P<.01). The median volume of recurrence was 0.26 cm{sup 3} and was directly associated with PSA (r=0.5, P=.02). The correlation between MRI-based tumor volume and PSA was even stronger in men with positive margins (r=0.8, P<.01). Conclusions: Endorectal MRI can define areas of local recurrence after RP in a minority of men without clinical evidence of disease, with yield related to PSA. Further study is necessary to determine whether eMRI can improve patient selection and success of salvage RT.« less