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Title: Anti-Hermitian part of the contracted Schroedinger equation for the direct calculation of two-electron reduced density matrices

Abstract

A recent advance in the theory of the contracted Schroedinger equation (CSE), in which only the anti-Hermitian part of the equation is solved, permits the direct determination of ground-state two-electron reduced density matrices (2-RDM's) that yield 95%-100% of the correlation energy of atoms and molecules [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 143002 (2006)]. Here we discuss in detail the anti-Hermitian contracted Schroedinger equation (ACSE) and its comparison to the CSE with regard to cumulant reconstruction of RDM's, the role of Nakatsuji's theorem, and the structure of the wave function. The ACSE is also formulated in the Heisenberg representation and related to canonical diagonalization. The solution of the ACSE is illustrated with a variety of molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, HF, and N{sub 2}, and potential energy and dipole-moment surfaces are computed for boron hydride in a polarized double-{zeta} basis set. The computed 2-RDM's very closely satisfy known N-representability conditions.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Department of Chemistry and The James Franck Institute, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20982104
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Physical Review. A; Journal Volume: 75; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.75.022505; (c) 2007 The American Physical Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
74 ATOMIC AND MOLECULAR PHYSICS; ATOMS; BORON HYDRIDES; CATIONS; DENSITY MATRIX; DIPOLE MOMENTS; ELECTRON CORRELATION; ELECTRONS; GROUND STATES; HEISENBERG PICTURE; HERMITIAN MATRIX; HYDROFLUORIC ACID; MATHEMATICAL SOLUTIONS; MOLECULES; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; POTENTIAL ENERGY; SCHROEDINGER EQUATION; SURFACES; WATER; WAVE FUNCTIONS

Citation Formats

Mazziotti, David A. Anti-Hermitian part of the contracted Schroedinger equation for the direct calculation of two-electron reduced density matrices. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.022505.
Mazziotti, David A. Anti-Hermitian part of the contracted Schroedinger equation for the direct calculation of two-electron reduced density matrices. United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.022505.
Mazziotti, David A. Thu . "Anti-Hermitian part of the contracted Schroedinger equation for the direct calculation of two-electron reduced density matrices". United States. doi:10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.022505.
@article{osti_20982104,
title = {Anti-Hermitian part of the contracted Schroedinger equation for the direct calculation of two-electron reduced density matrices},
author = {Mazziotti, David A.},
abstractNote = {A recent advance in the theory of the contracted Schroedinger equation (CSE), in which only the anti-Hermitian part of the equation is solved, permits the direct determination of ground-state two-electron reduced density matrices (2-RDM's) that yield 95%-100% of the correlation energy of atoms and molecules [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 143002 (2006)]. Here we discuss in detail the anti-Hermitian contracted Schroedinger equation (ACSE) and its comparison to the CSE with regard to cumulant reconstruction of RDM's, the role of Nakatsuji's theorem, and the structure of the wave function. The ACSE is also formulated in the Heisenberg representation and related to canonical diagonalization. The solution of the ACSE is illustrated with a variety of molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 2}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, HF, and N{sub 2}, and potential energy and dipole-moment surfaces are computed for boron hydride in a polarized double-{zeta} basis set. The computed 2-RDM's very closely satisfy known N-representability conditions.},
doi = {10.1103/PHYSREVA.75.022505},
journal = {Physical Review. A},
number = 2,
volume = 75,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Thu Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • Two-electron reduced density matrices (2-RDMs) have recently been directly calculated by solving the anti-Hermitian contracted Schroedinger equation (ACSE) to obtain 95-100 % of the ground-state correlation energy of atoms and molecules with the accuracy increasing with the size of the one-electron basis set [Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 143002 (2006).] In this paper, the ACSE method is extended to treat strong multireference correlation effects that are often important at nonequilibrium molecular geometries. While previous ACSE calculations have employed an initial 2-RDM from the Hartree-Fock method, we initialize the solution of the ACSE with a 2-RDM guess from a multiconfiguration self-consistentmore » field calculation. Applications are made to multireference correlation in the potential energy surfaces of the molecules HF, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2} in polarized valence double-zeta basis sets while N{sub 2} is treated in polarized valence double- and triple-zeta basis sets. Accurate ground-state energies and 1-RDM occupation numbers are obtained at both equilibrium and nonequilibrium geometries where the energies are within a few millihartrees of those from full configuration interaction.« less
  • Determination of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) from the solution of the anti-Hermitian contracted Schrödinger equation (ACSE) yields accurate energies and properties for both ground and excited states. Here, we develop a more efficient method to solving the ACSE that uses second-order information to select a more optimal step towards the solution. Calculations on the ground and excited states of water, hydrogen fluoride, and conjugated π systems show that the improved ACSE algorithm is 10-20 times faster than the previous ACSE algorithm. The ACSE can treat both single- and multi-reference electron correlation with the initial 2-RDM from a complete-active-spacemore » self-consistent-field (CASSCF) calculation. Using the improved algorithm, we explore the relationship between truncation of the active space in the CASSCF calculation and the accuracy of the energy and 2-RDM from the ACSE calculation. The accuracy of the ACSE, we find, is less sensitive to the size of the active space than the accuracy of other wavefunction methods, which is useful when large active space calculations are computationally infeasible.« less
  • Differing perspectives on the accuracy of three-electron reduced-density-matrix (3-RDM) reconstruction in nonminimal basis sets exist in the literature. This paper demonstrates the accuracy of cumulant-based reconstructions, developed by Valdemoro (V) [F. Colmenero et al., Phys. Rev. A 47, 971 (1993)], Nakatsuji and Yasuda (NY) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1039 (1996)], Mazziotti (M) [Phys. Rev. A 60, 3618 (1999)], and Valdemoro-Tel-Perez-Romero (VTP) [Many-electron Densities and Density Matrices, edited by J. Cioslowski (Kluwer, Boston, 2000)]. Computationally, we extend previous investigations to study a variety of molecules, including LiH, HF, NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2}, in Slater-type, double-zeta, and polarized double-zetamore » basis sets at both equilibrium and nonequilibrium geometries. The reconstructed 3-RDMs, compared with 3-RDMs from full configuration interaction, demonstrate in nonminimal basis sets the accuracy of the first-order expansion (V) as well as the important role of the second-order corrections (NY, M, and VTP). Calculations at nonequilibrium geometries further show that cumulant functionals can reconstruct the 3-RDM from a multireferenced 2-RDM with reasonable accuracy, which is relevant to recent multireferenced formulations of the anti-Hermitian contracted Schroedinger equation (ACSE) and canonical diagonalization. Theoretically, we perform a detailed perturbative analysis of the M functional to identify its second-order components. With these second-order components we connect the M, NY, and VTP reconstructions for the first time by deriving both the NY and VTP functionals from the M functional. Finally, these 3-RDM reconstructions are employed within the ACSE [D. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 143002 (2006)] to compute ground-state energies which are compared with the energies from the contracted Schroedinger equation and several wave function methods.« less
  • Correlation energies and reduced density matrices (RDMs) of atoms and molecules are directly computed by solving the 1,3-contracted Schroedinger equation (1,3-CSE). The solution of the 1,3-CSE synthesizes two optimization strategies recently employed for the direct determination of the 2-RDM: (i) variational minimization of the energy with respect to a 2-RDM constrained by positivity conditions [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 65, 062511 (2002)] and (ii) the contracted power method for solving the 2,4-CSE [D. A. Mazziotti, J. Chem. Phys. 116, 1239 (2002)]. While both the 3- and the 4-RDMs in the 2,4-CSE are reconstructed from the 2-RDM by cumulant expansions,more » similar techniques cannot be directly applied to the 1,3-CSE because constructing the 2-RDM from the 1-RDM with cumulant theory does not improve upon the mean-field approximation. We, however, establish a unique mapping from the 1-RDM to the 2-RDM by searching for the 2-RDM, constrained by contraction and N-representability conditions, which minimizes the energy. The 2-RDM constrained search is practically implemented through recent advances in positive semidefinite programming. With the variational reconstruction of the 2-RDM and a cumulant reconstruction of the 3-RDM, the 1,3-CSE may be solved via a contracted power method for the ground-state energy and RDMs. The initial RDMs, it is shown, need not be N representable for the contracted power method to converge; this allows us to choose the original RDMs from a variational calculation with approximate N-representability conditions on the 2-RDM. Application of the 1,3-CSE algorithm to atoms and molecules yields highly accurate correlation energies both near and far from equilibrium geometries.« less
  • Photoexcited radical reactions are critical to processes in both nature and materials, and yet they can be challenging for electronic structure methods due to the presence of strong electron correlation. Reduced-density-matrix (RDM) methods, based on solving the anti-Hermitian contracted Schroedinger equation (ACSE) for the two-electron RDM (2-RDM), are examined for studying the strongly correlated mechanisms of these reactions with application to the electrocyclic interconversion of allyl and cyclopropyl radicals. We combine recent extensions of the ACSE to excited states [G. Gidofalvi and D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 80, 022507 (2009)] and arbitrary spin states [A. E. Rothman, J. J.more » Foley IV, and D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. A 80, 052508 (2009)]. The ACSE predicts that the ground-state ring closure of the allyl radical has a high 52.5 kcal/mol activation energy that is consistent with experimental data, while the closure of an excited allyl radical can occur by disrotatory and conrotatory pathways whose transition states are essentially barrierless. Comparisons are made with multireference second- and third-order perturbation theories and multireference configuration interaction. While predicted energy differences do not vary greatly between methods, the ACSE appears to improve these differences when they involve a strongly and a weakly correlated radical by capturing a greater share of single-reference correlation that increases the stability of the weakly correlated radicals. For example, the ACSE predicts a -39.6 kcal/mol conversion of the excited allyl radical to the ground-state cyclopropyl radical in comparison to the -32.6 to -37.3 kcal/mol conversions predicted by multireference methods. In addition, the ACSE reduces the computational scaling with the number of strongly correlated orbitals from exponential (traditional multireference methods) to quadratic. Computed ground- and excited-state 2-RDMs are nearly N-representable.« less