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Title: Organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon and oxidative stress in neuronal cells in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency

Abstract

Over the past several years evidence has been accumulating from in vivo animal studies, observations in humans, and in vitro studies, that organophosphorus (OP) insecticides may induce oxidative stress. Such effects may contribute to some of the toxic manifestations of OPs, particularly upon chronic or developmental exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the neurotoxicity of two commonly used OPs, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZ), their oxygen analogs (CPO and DZO), and their 'inactive' metabolites (TCP and IMP), in neuronal cells from a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Cerebellar granule neurons from wild type mice (Gclm +/+) and mice lacking the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm -/-), the first and limiting step in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), were utilized. The latter display very low levels of GSH and are more susceptible to the toxicity of agents that increase oxidative stress. CPO and DZO were the most cytotoxic compounds, followed by CPF and DZ, while TCP and IMP displayed lower toxicity. Toxicity was significantly higher (10- to 25-fold) in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice, and was antagonized by various antioxidants. Depletion of GSH from Gclm (+/+) neurons significantly increased theirmore » sensitivity to OP toxicity. OPs increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and in both cases the effects were greater in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice. OPs did not alter intracellular levels of GSH, but significantly increased those of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Cytotoxicity was not antagonized by cholinergic antagonists, but was decreased by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. These studies indicate that cytotoxicity of OPs involves generation of reactive oxygen species and is modulated by intracellular GSH, and suggest that it may involve disturbances in intracellular homeostasis of calcium.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]
  1. Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States)
  2. Department of Human Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Sciences, University of Parma Medical School (Italy)
  3. Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States) and Department of Human Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Sciences, University of Parma Medical School (Italy). E-mail: lgcosta@u.washington.edu
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20976883
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 219; Journal Issue: 2-3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.016; PII: S0041-008X(06)00347-4; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANTIOXIDANTS; CALCIUM; CYSTEINE; GLUTATHIONE; HOMEOSTASIS; HUMAN POPULATIONS; IN VITRO; IN VIVO; INSECTICIDES; LIGASES; LIPIDS; METABOLITES; MICE; NERVE CELLS; OXIDATION; SENSITIVITY; STRESSES; SYNTHESIS; TCP; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Giordano, Gennaro, Afsharinejad, Zhara, Guizzetti, Marina, Vitalone, Annabella, Kavanagh, Terrance J., and Costa, Lucio G.. Organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon and oxidative stress in neuronal cells in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.016.
Giordano, Gennaro, Afsharinejad, Zhara, Guizzetti, Marina, Vitalone, Annabella, Kavanagh, Terrance J., & Costa, Lucio G.. Organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon and oxidative stress in neuronal cells in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.016.
Giordano, Gennaro, Afsharinejad, Zhara, Guizzetti, Marina, Vitalone, Annabella, Kavanagh, Terrance J., and Costa, Lucio G.. Thu . "Organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon and oxidative stress in neuronal cells in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency". United States. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.016.
@article{osti_20976883,
title = {Organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon and oxidative stress in neuronal cells in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency},
author = {Giordano, Gennaro and Afsharinejad, Zhara and Guizzetti, Marina and Vitalone, Annabella and Kavanagh, Terrance J. and Costa, Lucio G.},
abstractNote = {Over the past several years evidence has been accumulating from in vivo animal studies, observations in humans, and in vitro studies, that organophosphorus (OP) insecticides may induce oxidative stress. Such effects may contribute to some of the toxic manifestations of OPs, particularly upon chronic or developmental exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the neurotoxicity of two commonly used OPs, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZ), their oxygen analogs (CPO and DZO), and their 'inactive' metabolites (TCP and IMP), in neuronal cells from a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Cerebellar granule neurons from wild type mice (Gclm +/+) and mice lacking the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm -/-), the first and limiting step in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), were utilized. The latter display very low levels of GSH and are more susceptible to the toxicity of agents that increase oxidative stress. CPO and DZO were the most cytotoxic compounds, followed by CPF and DZ, while TCP and IMP displayed lower toxicity. Toxicity was significantly higher (10- to 25-fold) in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice, and was antagonized by various antioxidants. Depletion of GSH from Gclm (+/+) neurons significantly increased their sensitivity to OP toxicity. OPs increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and in both cases the effects were greater in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice. OPs did not alter intracellular levels of GSH, but significantly increased those of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Cytotoxicity was not antagonized by cholinergic antagonists, but was decreased by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. These studies indicate that cytotoxicity of OPs involves generation of reactive oxygen species and is modulated by intracellular GSH, and suggest that it may involve disturbances in intracellular homeostasis of calcium.},
doi = {10.1016/j.taap.2006.09.016},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
number = 2-3,
volume = 219,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The crystal and molecular structure of chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl thiophosphate, (H/sub 5/C/sub 2/O)/sub 2/P(S)OC/sub 5/NHCl/sub 3/, monoclinic, C2/c, a = 22.06 (1), b = 9.485 (2), c = 15.990 (6) A, ..beta.. = 114.63 (4)/sup 0/, Z = 8, Mo K..cap alpha.. radiation) has been determined by three-dimensional x-ray analysis. The structure was solved by conventional Patterson and Fourier techniques to a final discrepancy index R = 0.066 for 1421 observed reflections (absolute value F/sub 0/ > 2.5 sigma (F/sub 0/)). The phosphorus-meta hydrogen distance of 5.78 A is within the range of literature values cited for insect acetylcholinesterase (AChE),more » yet is well outside that for mammalian AChE. CNDO molecular orbital charge density calculations and van der Waals arguments are presented to correlate the solid state structure to a probable in vivo model. 3 figures, 1 table.« less
  • Oxidative stress can lead to expression of inflammatory transcription factors, which are important regulatory elements in the induction of inflammatory responses. One of the transcription factors, nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) plays a significant role in the inflammation regulatory process. Inflammatory cell death has been implicated in neuronal cell death in some neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis initiated by chlorpyrifos (CPF)-mediated oxidative stress. Based on the cytotoxic mechanism of CPF, we examined the neuroprotective effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, against CPF-induced neuronalmore » cell death. The treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CPF induced oxidative stress. In addition, CPF activated the p38, JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and induced increases in the inflammatory genes such as COX-2 and TNF-α. CPF also induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibitors of NF-κB abolished the CPF-induced COX-2 expression. Pretreatment with RGZ significantly reduced ROS generation and enhanced HO-1 expression in CPF-exposed cells. RGZ blocked the activation of both p38 and JNK signaling, while ERK activation was strengthened. RGZ also attenuated CPF-induced cell death through the reduction of NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory factors. Results from this study suggest that RGZ may exert an anti-apoptotic effect against CPF-induced cytotoxicity by attenuation of oxidative stress as well as inhibition of the inflammatory cascade via inactivation of signaling by p38 and JNK, and NF-κB. - Highlights: • CPF induces apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells • ROS involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Inflammation involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Rosiglitazone modulates ROS and inflammatory response in CPF-treated cells.« less
  • Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models have been developed and validated for the organophosphorus (OP) insecticides chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN). Based on similar pharmacokinetic and mode of action properties it is anticipated that these OPs could interact at a number of important metabolic steps including: CYP450 mediated activation/detoxification, and blood/tissue cholinesterase (ChE) binding/inhibition. We developed a binary PBPK/PD model for CPF, DZN and their metabolites based on previously published models for the individual insecticides. The metabolic interactions (CYP450) between CPF and DZN were evaluated in vitro and suggests that CPF is more substantially metabolized to its oxon metabolite than ismore » DZN. These data are consistent with their observed in vivo relative potency (CPF>DZN). Each insecticide inhibited the other’s in vitro metabolism in a concentration-dependent manner. The PBPK model code used to described the metabolism of CPF and DZN was modified to reflect the type of inhibition kinetics (i.e. competitive vs. non-competitive). The binary model was then evaluated against previously published rodent dosimetry and ChE inhibition data for the mixture. The PBPK/PD model simulations of the acute oral exposure to single- (15 mg/kg) vs. binary-mixtures (15+15 mg/kg) of CFP and DZN at this lower dose resulted in no differences in the predicted pharmacokinetics of either the parent OPs or their respective metabolites; whereas, a binary oral dose of CPF+DZN at 60+60 mg/kg did result in observable changes in the DZN pharmacokinetics. Cmax was more reasonably fit by modifying the absorption parameters. It is anticipated that at low environmentally relevant binary doses, most likely to be encountered in occupational or environmental related exposures, that the pharmacokinetics are expected to be linear, and ChE inhibition dose-additive.« less
  • Highlights: •Carvedilol significantly prevented oxidative stress-induced cell death. •Carvedilol significantly decreased the production of ROS. •Carvedilol activated Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Carvedilol increased the protein levels of HO-1 and NQO-1. -- Abstract: Carvedilol, a nonselective β-adrenoreceptor blocker with pleiotropic activities has been shown to exert neuroprotective effect due to its antioxidant property. However, the neuroprotective mechanism of carvedilol is still not fully uncovered. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. Here we investigated the effect of carvedilol on oxidative stress-induced cell death (glutamate 2 mM and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}more » 600 μM) and the activity of Nrf2/ARE pathway in HT22 hippocampal cells. Carvedilol significantly increased cell viability and decreased ROS in HT22 cells exposed to glutamate or H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Furthermore, carvedilol activated the Nrf2/ARE pathway in a concentration-dependent manner, and increased the protein levels of heme oxygenase-1(HO-1) and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase-1(NQO-1), two downstream factors of the Nrf2/ARE pathway. Collectively, our results indicate that carvedilol protects neuronal cell against glutamate- and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced neurotoxicity possibly through activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.« less
  • An excessive and sustained increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In the present study, we have demonstrated that 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a product of lipid peroxidation, alters glutathione (GSH) pools and induces oxidative stress in PC12 cells in culture. This increase was accompanied by alterations in subcellular ROS and glutathione (GSH) metabolisms. The GSH homeostasis was affected as both mitochondrial and extramitochondrial GSH levels, GSH peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities were inhibited and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity was increased after 4-HNE treatment. A concentration- and time-dependent increase inmore » cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1) activity in the mitochondria and postmitochondrial supernatant was also observed. 4-HNE-induced oxidative stress also caused an increase in the expression of GSTA4-4, CYP2E1 and Hsp70 proteins in the mitochondria. Increased oxidative stress in PC12 cells initiated apoptosis as indicated by the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, activation of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), DNA fragmentation and decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. Mitochondrial respiratory and redox functions also appeared to be affected markedly by 4-HNE treatment. These results suggest that HNE-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis might be associated with altered mitochondrial functions and a compromised GSH metabolism and ROS clearance.« less