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Title: Simple microscope using a compound refractive lens and a wide-bandwidth thermal neutron beam

Abstract

The results of imaging experiments using biconcave, spherical compound refractive lenses (CRLs) and a wide-bandwidth thermal neutron beam are presented. Two CRLs were used, consisting of 155 beryllium and 120 copper lenses. The experiments were performed using a thermal neutron beam line at McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center reactor. The authors obtained micrographs of cadmium slits with up to 5x magnification and 0.3 mm resolution. The CRL resolution was superior to a pinhole camera with the same aperture diameter. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the CRL was calculated and compared with the measured MTF at five spatial frequencies, showing good agreement.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Adelphi Technology Inc., 981-B Industrial Rd., San Carlos, California 94070 (United States)
  2. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20960189
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 14; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2719155; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; APERTURES; BERYLLIUM; CADMIUM; CAMERAS; COPPER; LENSES; NEUTRON BEAMS; OPTICAL MICROSCOPES; RESOLUTION; SPHERICAL CONFIGURATION; THERMAL NEUTRONS; TRANSFER FUNCTIONS

Citation Formats

Cremer, J. T., Park, H., Piestrup, M. A., Gary, C. K., Pantell, R. H., Flocchini, R. G., Egbert, H. P., Kloh, M. D., Walker, R. B., Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, and Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center, University of California, McClellan, California 95652. Simple microscope using a compound refractive lens and a wide-bandwidth thermal neutron beam. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2719155.
Cremer, J. T., Park, H., Piestrup, M. A., Gary, C. K., Pantell, R. H., Flocchini, R. G., Egbert, H. P., Kloh, M. D., Walker, R. B., Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, & Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center, University of California, McClellan, California 95652. Simple microscope using a compound refractive lens and a wide-bandwidth thermal neutron beam. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2719155.
Cremer, J. T., Park, H., Piestrup, M. A., Gary, C. K., Pantell, R. H., Flocchini, R. G., Egbert, H. P., Kloh, M. D., Walker, R. B., Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305, and Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center, University of California, McClellan, California 95652. Mon . "Simple microscope using a compound refractive lens and a wide-bandwidth thermal neutron beam". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2719155.
@article{osti_20960189,
title = {Simple microscope using a compound refractive lens and a wide-bandwidth thermal neutron beam},
author = {Cremer, J. T. and Park, H. and Piestrup, M. A. and Gary, C. K. and Pantell, R. H. and Flocchini, R. G. and Egbert, H. P. and Kloh, M. D. and Walker, R. B. and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Davis McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center, University of California, McClellan, California 95652},
abstractNote = {The results of imaging experiments using biconcave, spherical compound refractive lenses (CRLs) and a wide-bandwidth thermal neutron beam are presented. Two CRLs were used, consisting of 155 beryllium and 120 copper lenses. The experiments were performed using a thermal neutron beam line at McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center reactor. The authors obtained micrographs of cadmium slits with up to 5x magnification and 0.3 mm resolution. The CRL resolution was superior to a pinhole camera with the same aperture diameter. The modulation transfer function (MTF) of the CRL was calculated and compared with the measured MTF at five spatial frequencies, showing good agreement.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2719155},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 14,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 02 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Mon Apr 02 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • We present x-ray images of grid meshes and biological material obtained using an unfiltered x-ray tube and a compound refractive lens composed of microbubbles embedded in epoxy inside a glass capillary. Images obtained using this apparatus are compared with those using a synchrotron source and the same lens. We find that the field of view is larger than that obtained using the synchrotron source, whereas the contrast and resolution are reduced. Geometrical distortion around the edges of the field of view is also reduced. The experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the apparatus in a modest laboratory setting.
  • No abstract prepared.
  • The performance of a cooled Be compound refractive lens (CRL) has been tested at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to enable vertical focusing of the pink beam and permit the X-ray beam to spatially overlap with an 80 µm-high low-density plasma that simulates astrophysical environments. Focusing the fundamental harmonics of an insertion device white beam increases the APS power density; here, a power density as high as 500 W mm –2 was calculated. A CRL is chromatic so it does not efficiently focus X-rays whose energies are above the fundamental. Only the fundamental of the undulator focuses at the experiment.more » A two-chopper system reduces the power density on the imaging system and lens by four orders of magnitude, enabling imaging of the focal plane without any X-ray filter. As a result, a method to measure such high power density as well as the performance of the lens in focusing the pink beam is reported.« less
  • Biconcave cylindrical lenses are used to focus beams of x rays or neutrons using the refractive properties of matter. In the case of neutrons, the refractive properties of magnetic induction can similarly focus and simultaneously polarize the neutron beam without the concomitant attenuation of matter. This concept of a magnetic refractive lens was tested using a compound lens consisting of 99 pairs of cylindrical permanent magnets. The assembly successfully focused the intensity of a white beam of cold neutrons of one spin state at the detector, while defocusing the other. This experiment confirmed that a lens of this nature maymore » boost the intensity locally by almost an order of magnitude and create a polarized beam. An estimate of the performance of a more practically dimensioned device suitable for incorporation in reflectometers and slit-geometry small angle scattering instruments is given.« less
  • Biconcave cylindrical lenses are used to focus beams of x rays or neutrons using the refractive properties of matter. In the case of neutrons, the refractive properties of magnetic induction can similarly focus and simultaneously polarize the neutron beam without the concomitant attenuation of matter. This concept of a magnetic refractive lens was tested using a compound lens consisting of 99 pairs of cylindrical permanent magnets. The assembly successfully focused the intensity of a white beam of cold neutrons of one spin state at the detector, while defocusing the other. This experiment confirmed that a lens of this nature maymore » boost the intensity locally by almost an order of magnitude and create a polarized beam. An estimate of the performance of a more practically dimensioned device suitable for incorporation in reflectometers and slit-geometry small angle scattering instruments is given.« less