skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Precision instrumentation for rolling element bearing characterization

Abstract

This article describes an instrument to measure the error motion of rolling element bearings. This challenge is met by simultaneously satisfying four requirements. First, an axial preload must be applied to seat the rolling elements in the bearing races. Second, one of the races must spin under the influence of an applied torque. Third, rotation of the remaining race must be prevented in a way that leaves the radial, axial/face, and tilt displacements free to move. Finally, the bearing must be fixtured and measured without introducing off-axis loading or other distorting influences. In the design presented here, an air bearing reference spindle with error motion of less than 10 nm rotates the inner race of the bearing under test. Noninfluencing couplings are used to prevent rotation of the bearing outer race and apply an axial preload without distorting the bearing or influencing the measurement. Capacitive displacement sensors with 2 nm resolution target the nonrotating outer race. The error motion measurement repeatability is shown to be less than 25 nm. The article closes with a discussion of how the instrument may be used to gather data with sufficient resolution to accurately estimate the contact angle of deep groove ball bearings.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Machine Dynamics Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University, 331 Reber Building University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)
  2. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20953403
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 78; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2715933; (c) 2007 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; ACCURACY; AIR; BALL BEARINGS; DESIGN; ERRORS; ROLLING; ROTATION; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; TORQUE

Citation Formats

Marsh, Eric R., Vigliano, Vincent C., Weiss, Jeffrey R., Moerlein, Alex W., Vallance, R. Ryan, and Precision Systems Laboratory, George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall 801 22nd Street, N.W. Washington, D.C., 20052. Precision instrumentation for rolling element bearing characterization. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2715933.
Marsh, Eric R., Vigliano, Vincent C., Weiss, Jeffrey R., Moerlein, Alex W., Vallance, R. Ryan, & Precision Systems Laboratory, George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall 801 22nd Street, N.W. Washington, D.C., 20052. Precision instrumentation for rolling element bearing characterization. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2715933.
Marsh, Eric R., Vigliano, Vincent C., Weiss, Jeffrey R., Moerlein, Alex W., Vallance, R. Ryan, and Precision Systems Laboratory, George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall 801 22nd Street, N.W. Washington, D.C., 20052. Thu . "Precision instrumentation for rolling element bearing characterization". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2715933.
@article{osti_20953403,
title = {Precision instrumentation for rolling element bearing characterization},
author = {Marsh, Eric R. and Vigliano, Vincent C. and Weiss, Jeffrey R. and Moerlein, Alex W. and Vallance, R. Ryan and Precision Systems Laboratory, George Washington University, 738 Phillips Hall 801 22nd Street, N.W. Washington, D.C., 20052},
abstractNote = {This article describes an instrument to measure the error motion of rolling element bearings. This challenge is met by simultaneously satisfying four requirements. First, an axial preload must be applied to seat the rolling elements in the bearing races. Second, one of the races must spin under the influence of an applied torque. Third, rotation of the remaining race must be prevented in a way that leaves the radial, axial/face, and tilt displacements free to move. Finally, the bearing must be fixtured and measured without introducing off-axis loading or other distorting influences. In the design presented here, an air bearing reference spindle with error motion of less than 10 nm rotates the inner race of the bearing under test. Noninfluencing couplings are used to prevent rotation of the bearing outer race and apply an axial preload without distorting the bearing or influencing the measurement. Capacitive displacement sensors with 2 nm resolution target the nonrotating outer race. The error motion measurement repeatability is shown to be less than 25 nm. The article closes with a discussion of how the instrument may be used to gather data with sufficient resolution to accurately estimate the contact angle of deep groove ball bearings.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2715933},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 3,
volume = 78,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007},
month = {Thu Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2007}
}
  • The rotational performance of high-precision rolling bearings is fundamental to the overall accuracy of complex mechanical systems. A nano-level instrument to analyze rotational accuracy of high-precision bearings of machine tools under working conditions was developed. In this instrument, a high-precision (error motion < 0.15 μm) and high-stiffness (2600 N axial loading capacity) aerostatic spindle was applied to spin the test bearing. Operating conditions could be simulated effectively because of the large axial loading capacity. An air-cylinder, controlled by a proportional pressure regulator, was applied to drive an air-bearing subjected to non-contact and precise loaded axial forces. The measurement results onmore » axial loading and rotation constraint with five remaining degrees of freedom were completely unconstrained and uninfluenced by the instrument's structure. Dual capacity displacement sensors with 10 nm resolution were applied to measure the error motion of the spindle using a double-probe error separation method. This enabled the separation of the spindle's error motion from the measurement results of the test bearing which were measured using two orthogonal laser displacement sensors with 5 nm resolution. Finally, a Lissajous figure was used to evaluate the non-repetitive run-out (NRRO) of the bearing at different axial forces and speeds. The measurement results at various axial loadings and speeds showed the standard deviations of the measurements’ repeatability and accuracy were less than 1% and 2%. Future studies will analyze the relationship between geometrical errors and NRRO, such as the ball diameter differences of and the geometrical errors in the grooves of rings.« less
  • Lubricant additives have been known to affect rolling element bearing surface durability for many years. Tapered roller bearings were used in fatigue testing of lubricants formulated with gear oil type additive systems. These systems have sulfur- and phosphoruscontaining compounds used for gear protection as well as bearing lubrication. Several variations of a commercially available base additive formulation were tested having modified sulfur components. The variations represent a range of ''active'' extreme pressure (EP) chemistries. The bearing fatigue test results were compared with respect to EP formulation and test conditions. Inner ring near-surface material in selected test bearings was evaluated onmore » two scales: the micrometer scale using optical metallography and the nanometer scale using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Focused-ion beam (FIB) techniques were used for TEM specimen preparation. Imaging and chemical analysis of the bearing samples revealed near-surface material and tribofilm characteristics. These results are discussed with respect to the relative fatigue lives.« less
  • The purpose of this paper is to describe the basic structure and results to date of a major ARPA funded effort to provide a tribological performance database on ceramic bearing materials and their interaction with standard bearing steels. Program efforts include studies of material physical properties, machining characteristics, and tribological performance. The majority of the testing completed to date focuses on rolling contact fatigue testing of the ceramic materials, including efforts to arrive at optimum approaches to evaluating ceramic/steel hybrid combinations in rolling contact fatigue.
  • At first glance, there seems to be a bewildering array of rolling element bearings available. Understanding the differences between then can help in properly applying the right bearing or replacing one that is misapplied. The author explains the differences in rolling element bearings, how to recognize them, where they are best used, and where to find them.