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Title: MCNP-based computational model for the Leksell Gamma Knife

Abstract

We have focused on the usage of MCNP code for calculation of Gamma Knife radiation field parameters with a homogenous polystyrene phantom. We have investigated several parameters of the Leksell Gamma Knife radiation field and compared the results with other studies based on EGS4 and PENELOPE code as well as the Leksell Gamma Knife treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan (LGP). The current model describes all 201 radiation beams together and simulates all the sources in the same time. Within each beam, it considers the technical construction of the source, the source holder, collimator system, the spherical phantom, and surrounding material. We have calculated output factors for various sizes of scoring volumes, relative dose distributions along basic planes including linear dose profiles, integral doses in various volumes, and differential dose volume histograms. All the parameters have been calculated for each collimator size and for the isocentric configuration of the phantom. We have found the calculated output factors to be in agreement with other authors' works except the case of 4 mm collimator size, where averaging over the scoring volume and statistical uncertainties strongly influences the calculated results. In general, all the results are dependent on the choice of the scoring volume.more » The calculated linear dose profiles and relative dose distributions also match independent studies and the Leksell GammaPlan, but care must be taken about the fluctuations within the plateau, which can influence the normalization, and accuracy in determining the isocenter position, which is important for comparing different dose profiles. The calculated differential dose volume histograms and integral doses have been compared with data provided by the Leksell GammaPlan. The dose volume histograms are in good agreement as well as integral doses calculated in small calculation matrix volumes. However, deviations in integral doses up to 50% can be observed for large volumes such as for the total skull volume. The differences observed in treatment of scattered radiation between the MC method and the LGP may be important in this case. We have also studied the influence of differential direction sampling of primary photons and have found that, due to the anisotropic sampling, doses around the isocenter deviate from each other by up to 6%. With caution about the details of the calculation settings, it is possible to employ the MCNP Monte Carlo code for independent verification of the Leksell Gamma Knife radiation field properties.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 11519 (Czech Republic)
  2. (United States)
  3. (Czech Republic)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20853935
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: DOI: 10.1118/1.2401054; (c) 2007 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ACCURACY; ANISOTROPY; COLLIMATORS; DOSIMETRY; INTEGRAL DOSES; MONTE CARLO METHOD; PHANTOMS; PHOTONS; POLYSTYRENE; RADIATION DOSE DISTRIBUTIONS; RADIOTHERAPY; SKULL; VERIFICATION

Citation Formats

Trnka, Jiri, Novotny, Josef Jr., Kluson, Jaroslav, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dallas, Texas, and Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 11519. MCNP-based computational model for the Leksell Gamma Knife. United States: N. p., 2007. Web. doi:10.1118/1.2401054.
Trnka, Jiri, Novotny, Josef Jr., Kluson, Jaroslav, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dallas, Texas, & Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 11519. MCNP-based computational model for the Leksell Gamma Knife. United States. doi:10.1118/1.2401054.
Trnka, Jiri, Novotny, Josef Jr., Kluson, Jaroslav, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dallas, Texas, and Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 11519. Mon . "MCNP-based computational model for the Leksell Gamma Knife". United States. doi:10.1118/1.2401054.
@article{osti_20853935,
title = {MCNP-based computational model for the Leksell Gamma Knife},
author = {Trnka, Jiri and Novotny, Josef Jr. and Kluson, Jaroslav and UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Dallas, Texas and Department of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, 11519},
abstractNote = {We have focused on the usage of MCNP code for calculation of Gamma Knife radiation field parameters with a homogenous polystyrene phantom. We have investigated several parameters of the Leksell Gamma Knife radiation field and compared the results with other studies based on EGS4 and PENELOPE code as well as the Leksell Gamma Knife treatment planning system Leksell GammaPlan (LGP). The current model describes all 201 radiation beams together and simulates all the sources in the same time. Within each beam, it considers the technical construction of the source, the source holder, collimator system, the spherical phantom, and surrounding material. We have calculated output factors for various sizes of scoring volumes, relative dose distributions along basic planes including linear dose profiles, integral doses in various volumes, and differential dose volume histograms. All the parameters have been calculated for each collimator size and for the isocentric configuration of the phantom. We have found the calculated output factors to be in agreement with other authors' works except the case of 4 mm collimator size, where averaging over the scoring volume and statistical uncertainties strongly influences the calculated results. In general, all the results are dependent on the choice of the scoring volume. The calculated linear dose profiles and relative dose distributions also match independent studies and the Leksell GammaPlan, but care must be taken about the fluctuations within the plateau, which can influence the normalization, and accuracy in determining the isocenter position, which is important for comparing different dose profiles. The calculated differential dose volume histograms and integral doses have been compared with data provided by the Leksell GammaPlan. The dose volume histograms are in good agreement as well as integral doses calculated in small calculation matrix volumes. However, deviations in integral doses up to 50% can be observed for large volumes such as for the total skull volume. The differences observed in treatment of scattered radiation between the MC method and the LGP may be important in this case. We have also studied the influence of differential direction sampling of primary photons and have found that, due to the anisotropic sampling, doses around the isocenter deviate from each other by up to 6%. With caution about the details of the calculation settings, it is possible to employ the MCNP Monte Carlo code for independent verification of the Leksell Gamma Knife radiation field properties.},
doi = {10.1118/1.2401054},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007},
month = {Mon Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2007}
}
  • No accepted official protocol exists for the dosimetry of the Leksell Gamma Knife registered (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery device. Establishment of a dosimetry protocol has been complicated by the unique partial-hemisphere arrangement of 201 individual {sup 60}Co beams simultaneously focused on the treatment volume and by the rigid geometry of the GK unit itself. This article proposes an air kerma based dosimetry protocol using either an in-air or in-acrylic phantom measurement to determine the absorbed dose rate of fields of the 18 mm helmet of a GK unit. A small-volume air ionization chamber was used to make measurements at the physicalmore » isocenter of three GK units. The absorbed dose rate to water was determined using a modified version of the AAPM Task Group 21 protocol designed for use with {sup 60}Co-based teletherapy machines. This experimentally determined absorbed dose rate was compared to the treatment planning system (TPS) absorbed dose rate. The TPS used with the GK unit is Leksell GammaPlan. The TPS absorbed dose rate at the time of treatment is the absorbed dose rate determined by the physicist at the time of machine commissioning decay corrected to the treatment date. The TPS absorbed dose rate is defined as absorbed dose rate to water at the isocenter of a water phantom with a radius of 8 cm. Measurements were performed on model B and C Gamma Knife units. The absorbed dose rate to water for the 18 mm helmet determined using air-kerma based calculations is consistently between 1.5% and 2.9% higher than the absorbed dose rate provided by the TPS. These air kerma based measurements allow GK dosimetry to be performed with an established dosimetry protocol and without complications arising from the use of and possible variations in solid phantom material. Measurements were also made with the same ionization chamber in a spherical acrylic phantom for comparison. This methodology will allow further development of calibration methods appropriate for the smaller fields of GK units to be compared to a well established standard.« less
  • The Leksell Gamma Knife Unit, Type U, utilizes 201 separate {sup 60}Co sources intersecting at a common focus for radiosurgical treatment of the brain. It has been generally understood that all primary unattenuated radiation beams are confined with the protective housing during all phases of Gamma Knife operations. The authors have found that when the unit`s shielding door is lowered for treatment, twelve primary beams exit the unit`s door opening. Furthermore, in the original Gamma Knife unit design, two of the twelve primary beams failed to be attenuated by either the unit base or the unit wings. This has implicationsmore » for the design of structural shielding and the protection of personnel during emergency procedures. Engineering modifications to eliminate the problem are discussed. 1 ref., 2 figs.« less
  • On August 14, 1987, the first stereotactic radiosurgical procedure using the gamma knife was performed in North America. Located in a self-contained radiosurgical suite in the basement of Presbyterian-University Hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. This device uses 201 highly focused beams 60Co for the single-treatment closed-skull irradiation of brain lesions localized by stereotactic techniques (radiosurgery). One hundred and fifty-two patients with intracranial arteriovenous malformations or brain tumors were treated in the first year of operation. The Presbyterian University Hospital of Pittsburgh gamma knife is the first such unit in which the 60Co sources were loaded on-site. This effort required us tomore » solve some difficult and unusual problems encountered during site preparation, delivery, and loading of the unit in a busy hospital setting. The solutions developed enabled installation and use of the gamma knife with minimal disruption of hospital activities while maintaining acceptable levels of exposure to radiation. Environmental surveys performed during the loading of the 201 radioactive sources (total, 219 TBq) confirmed that on-site loading is possible and practical. Our experience in the design, construction, and implementation of the first North American gamma knife supports the practicality and safety of on-site loading and may be of value in the planning and development of future gamma knife installations.« less
  • In the algorithm of Leksell GAMMAPLAN (the treatment planning software of Leksell Gamma Knife), scattered photons from the collimator system are presumed to have negligible effects on the Gamma Knife dosimetry. In this study, we used the EGS4 Monte Carlo (MC) technique to study the scattered photons coming out of the single beam channel of Leksell Gamma Knife. The PRESTA (Parameter Reduced Electron-Step Transport Algorithm) version of the EGS4 (Electron Gamma Shower version 4) MC computer code was employed. We simulated the single beam channel of Leksell Gamma Knife with the full geometry. Primary photons were sampled from within themore » {sup 60}Co source and radiated isotropically in a solid angle of 4{pi}. The percentages of scattered photons within all photons reaching the phantom space using different collimators were calculated with an average value of 15%. However, this significant amount of scattered photons contributes negligible effects to single beam dose profiles for different collimators. Output spectra were calculated for the four different collimators. To increase the efficiency of simulation by decreasing the semiaperture angle of the beam channel or the solid angle of the initial directions of primary photons will underestimate the scattered component of the photon fluence. The generated backscattered photons from within the {sup 60}Co source and the beam channel also contribute to the output spectra.« less
  • We investigated the amplification of discrepancy when using multiple shots of the same collimator size helmet, by comparing dose plans in the Leksell GammaPlan registered employing the default single-beam dose profiles and the Monte Carlo generated single-beam profiles. Four collimator helmets were studied. The results show that the largest amplification of discrepancy with multiple shots was found with the 8 mm collimator because of the largest discrepancy of its single-beam dose profile. The amplification of discrepancy is significant when tumor volumes increase but insignificant when the tumor volumes are in an elongated shape. Using close shot overlapping strategy (i.e., moremore » shots close packed together) shows no observable increase in the amplification of discrepancy. For the best quality of Leksell Gamma Knife registered radiosurgery, it is suggested that the single-beam dose profiles should be refined, especially the 8 mm collimator, to prevent error amplification when using multiple collimator shots.« less