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Title: Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion

Abstract

The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion promoted by two different paramyxovirus F proteins in three cell types in the presence of constitutively active Rho family GTPases, major cellular coordinators of actin dynamics. Reporter gene and syncytia assays demonstrated that expression of either Rac1{sup V12} or Cdc42{sup V12} could increase cell-cell fusion promoted by the Hendra or SV5 glycoproteins, though the effect was dependent on the cell type expressing the viral glycoproteins. In contrast, RhoA{sup L63} decreased cell-cell fusion promoted by Hendra glycoproteins but had little affect on SV5 F-mediated fusion. Also, data suggested that GTPase activation in the viral glycoprotein-containing cell was primarily responsible for changes in fusion. Additionally, we found that activated Cdc42 promoted nuclear rearrangement in syncytia.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1];  [3]
  1. Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, 741 South Limestone, Lexington, KY 40536-0509 (United States)
  2. Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
  3. Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, University of Kentucky, 741 South Limestone, Lexington, KY 40536-0509 (United States). E-mail: rdutc2@uky.edu
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20850525
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Virology; Journal Volume: 350; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2006.01.033; PII: S0042-6822(06)00062-6; Copyright (c) 2006 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, Netherlands, All rights reserved; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ACTIN; GENES; GLYCOPROTEINS; MEMBRANES; MICROTUBULES

Citation Formats

Schowalter, Rachel M., Wurth, Mark A., Aguilar, Hector C., Lee, Benhur, Moncman, Carole L., McCann, Richard O., and Dutch, Rebecca Ellis. Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2006.01.033.
Schowalter, Rachel M., Wurth, Mark A., Aguilar, Hector C., Lee, Benhur, Moncman, Carole L., McCann, Richard O., & Dutch, Rebecca Ellis. Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion. United States. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2006.01.033.
Schowalter, Rachel M., Wurth, Mark A., Aguilar, Hector C., Lee, Benhur, Moncman, Carole L., McCann, Richard O., and Dutch, Rebecca Ellis. 2006. "Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion". United States. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2006.01.033.
@article{osti_20850525,
title = {Rho GTPase activity modulates paramyxovirus fusion protein-mediated cell-cell fusion},
author = {Schowalter, Rachel M. and Wurth, Mark A. and Aguilar, Hector C. and Lee, Benhur and Moncman, Carole L. and McCann, Richard O. and Dutch, Rebecca Ellis},
abstractNote = {The paramyxovirus fusion protein (F) promotes fusion of the viral envelope with the plasma membrane of target cells as well as cell-cell fusion. The plasma membrane is closely associated with the actin cytoskeleton, but the role of actin dynamics in paramyxovirus F-mediated membrane fusion is unclear. We examined cell-cell fusion promoted by two different paramyxovirus F proteins in three cell types in the presence of constitutively active Rho family GTPases, major cellular coordinators of actin dynamics. Reporter gene and syncytia assays demonstrated that expression of either Rac1{sup V12} or Cdc42{sup V12} could increase cell-cell fusion promoted by the Hendra or SV5 glycoproteins, though the effect was dependent on the cell type expressing the viral glycoproteins. In contrast, RhoA{sup L63} decreased cell-cell fusion promoted by Hendra glycoproteins but had little affect on SV5 F-mediated fusion. Also, data suggested that GTPase activation in the viral glycoprotein-containing cell was primarily responsible for changes in fusion. Additionally, we found that activated Cdc42 promoted nuclear rearrangement in syncytia.},
doi = {10.1016/j.virol.2006.01.033},
journal = {Virology},
number = 2,
volume = 350,
place = {United States},
year = 2006,
month = 7
}
  • Although cell-cell fusion assays are useful surrogate methods for studying virus fusion, differences between cell-cell and virus-cell fusion exist. To examine paramyxovirus fusion in real time, we labeled viruses with fluorescent lipid probes and monitored virus-cell fusion by fluorimetry. Two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) isolates (W3A and SER) and PIV5 containing mutations within the fusion protein (F) were studied. Fusion was specific and temperature-dependent. Compared to many low pH-dependent viruses, the kinetics of PIV5 fusion was slow, approaching completion within several minutes. As predicted from cell-cell fusion assays, virus containing an F protein with an extended cytoplasmic tail (rSV5 F551)more » had reduced fusion compared to wild-type virus (W3A). In contrast, virus-cell fusion for SER occurred at near wild-type levels, despite the fact that this isolate exhibits a severely reduced cell-cell fusion phenotype. These results support the notion that virus-cell and cell-cell fusion have significant differences.« less
  • Class I viral fusion proteins share common mechanistic and structural features but little sequence similarity. Structural insights into the protein conformational changes associated with membrane fusion are based largely on studies of the influenza virus hemagglutinin in pre- and postfusion conformations. Here, we present the crystal structure of the secreted, uncleaved ectodomain of the paramyxovirus, human parainfluenza virus 3 fusion (F) protein, a member of the class I viral fusion protein group. The secreted human parainfluenza virus 3 F forms a trimer with distinct head, neck, and stalk regions. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals a six-helix bundle associated with the postfusionmore » form of F, suggesting that the anchor-minus ectodomain adopts a conformation largely similar to the postfusion state. The transmembrane anchor domains of F may therefore profoundly influence the folding energetics that establish and maintain a metastable, prefusion state.« less
  • Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial conformational change of paramyxovirus F protein is caused only by mechanical forces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HRA region undergoes a structural change from a beta + alpha conformation to an extended coil and then to an all-alpha conformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HRS domains of F protein form three single {alpha}-helices prior to generation of the coiled coil. -- Abstract: The fusion of paramyxovirus to the cell membrane is mediated by fusion protein (F protein) present in the virus envelope, which undergoes a dramatic conformational change during the process. Unlike hemagglutinin in orthomyxovirus, this change is not mediated by an alteration of environmentalmore » pH, and its cause remains unknown. Steered molecular dynamics analysis leads us to suggest that the conformational modification is mediated only by stretching mechanical forces once the transmembrane fusion peptide of the protein is anchored to the cell membrane. Such elongating forces will generate major secondary structure rearrangement in the heptad repeat A region of the F protein; from {beta}-sheet conformation to an elongated coil and then spontaneously to an {alpha}-helix. In addition, it is proposed that the heptad repeat A region adopts a final three-helix coiled coil and that this structure appears after the formation of individual helices in each monomer.« less
  • Previously, we found that in t(X;1)(p11;q21)-positive renal cell carcinomas the bHLH-LZ transcription factor TFE3 is fused to a novel protein designated PRCC. In addition, we found that the PRCCTFE3 fusion protein, which has retained all known functional domains of TFE3, acts as a more potent transcriptional activator than wild type TFE3. We also found that PRCCTFE3 expression confers in vitro and in vivo transformation onto various cell types, including those of the kidney. Here we show that de novo expression of the PRCCTFE3 fusion protein provokes cell cycle delay. This delay, which is mediated by induction of the cyclin-dependent kinasemore » inhibitor p21{sup W{sup A{sup F{sup 1{sup /{sup C{sup I{sup P{sup 1}}}}}}}}}, affects both the G1/S and the G2/M phases of the cell cycle and prevents the cells from undergoing polyploidization. We also show that the PRCCTFE3 fusion protein binds directly to the p21{sup W{sup A{sup F{sup 1{sup /{sup C{sup I{sup P{sup 1}}}}}}}}} promoter and that the PRCCTFE3-induced up-regulation of p21{sup W{sup A{sup F{sup 1{sup /{sup C{sup I{sup P{sup 1}}}}}}}}} leads to activation of the pRB pathway. Finally, we show that in t(X;1)(p11;q21)-positive renal tumor cells several processes that link PRCCTFE3 expression to p21{sup W{sup A{sup F{sup 1{sup /{sup C{sup I{sup P{sup 1}}}}}}}}}-mediated cell cycle delay are abrogated. Our data suggest a scenario in which, during the course of renal cell carcinoma development, an initial PRCCTFE3-induced cell cycle delay must be numbed, thus permitting continued proliferation and progression towards full-blown malignancy.« less
  • Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma, and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory disorders. HTLV-1 provirus has regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. HTLV-1 pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13{sup II} and p30{sup II}, which are incompletely defined in virus replication or pathogenesis. We have demonstrated that pX ORF-II mutations block virus replication in vivo and that ORF-II encoded p30{sup II}, a nuclear-localizing protein that binds with CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, represses CREB and Tax responsive element (TRE)-mediated transcription. Herein, we have identified p30{sup II} motifs importantmore » for p300 binding and in regulating TRE-mediated transcription in the absence and presence of HTLV-1 provirus. Within amino acids 100-179 of p30{sup II}, a region important for repression of LTR-mediated transcription, we identified a single lysine residue at amino acid 106 (K3) that significantly modulates the ability of p30{sup II} to repress TRE-mediated transcription. Exogenous p300, in a dose-responsive manner, reverses p30{sup II}-dependent repression of TRE-mediated transcription, in the absence or presence of the provirus, In contrast to wild type p300, p300 HAT mutants (defective in histone acetyltransferase activity) only partially rescued p30{sup II}-mediated LTR repression. Deacetylation by histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) enhanced p30{sup II}-mediated LTR repression, while inhibition of deacetylation by trichostatin A decreases p30{sup II}-mediated LTR repression. Collectively, our data indicate that HTLV-1 p30{sup II} modulates viral gene expression in a cooperative manner with p300-mediated acetylation.« less