skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Fabrication and characterizations of proton-exchanged LiNbO{sub 3} waveguides fabricated by inductively coupled plasma technique

Abstract

This Letter reports the use of an inductively coupled plasma technique for fabrication of proton-exchanged (PE) LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) waveguides. Planar and stripe waveguides have been formed in Y-cut LN which are difficult to obtain with the conventional molten acid method due to the occurrence of surface damage. Secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared absorption spectrum characterization results revealed that a uniform vertical PE profile with a single low order crystal phase has been directly obtained as a result of this unique process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of the treated surface revealed the existence of NbO as the cause for a sometimes darkened surface and confirms the ability to completely restore the surface to LN by oxygen plasma treatment. Atomic force microscopy measurement confirms that good surface quality has been maintained after regeneration of the surface to LN.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [2]
  1. Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom)
  2. (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20779166
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 88; Journal Issue: 14; Other Information: DOI: 10.1063/1.2191704; (c) 2006 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ABSORPTION SPECTRA; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; CRYSTALS; FABRICATION; INFRARED SPECTRA; ION EXCHANGE; ION MICROPROBE ANALYSIS; LITHIUM COMPOUNDS; MASS SPECTRA; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; NIOBATES; PLASMA; PROTONS; REGENERATION; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; WAVEGUIDES; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Ren, Z., Heard, P.J., Hallam, K.R., Wotherspoon, Alex, Jiang, Q., Varrazza, R., Yu, S., Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS, Department of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, Innos Ltd., Southampton SO17 1BJ, and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB. Fabrication and characterizations of proton-exchanged LiNbO{sub 3} waveguides fabricated by inductively coupled plasma technique. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1063/1.2191704.
Ren, Z., Heard, P.J., Hallam, K.R., Wotherspoon, Alex, Jiang, Q., Varrazza, R., Yu, S., Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS, Department of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, Innos Ltd., Southampton SO17 1BJ, & Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB. Fabrication and characterizations of proton-exchanged LiNbO{sub 3} waveguides fabricated by inductively coupled plasma technique. United States. doi:10.1063/1.2191704.
Ren, Z., Heard, P.J., Hallam, K.R., Wotherspoon, Alex, Jiang, Q., Varrazza, R., Yu, S., Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS, Department of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, Innos Ltd., Southampton SO17 1BJ, and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB. Mon . "Fabrication and characterizations of proton-exchanged LiNbO{sub 3} waveguides fabricated by inductively coupled plasma technique". United States. doi:10.1063/1.2191704.
@article{osti_20779166,
title = {Fabrication and characterizations of proton-exchanged LiNbO{sub 3} waveguides fabricated by inductively coupled plasma technique},
author = {Ren, Z. and Heard, P.J. and Hallam, K.R. and Wotherspoon, Alex and Jiang, Q. and Varrazza, R. and Yu, S. and Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol BS2 8BS and Department of Physics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL and Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL and Innos Ltd., Southampton SO17 1BJ and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1UB},
abstractNote = {This Letter reports the use of an inductively coupled plasma technique for fabrication of proton-exchanged (PE) LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) waveguides. Planar and stripe waveguides have been formed in Y-cut LN which are difficult to obtain with the conventional molten acid method due to the occurrence of surface damage. Secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and infrared absorption spectrum characterization results revealed that a uniform vertical PE profile with a single low order crystal phase has been directly obtained as a result of this unique process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of the treated surface revealed the existence of NbO as the cause for a sometimes darkened surface and confirms the ability to completely restore the surface to LN by oxygen plasma treatment. Atomic force microscopy measurement confirms that good surface quality has been maintained after regeneration of the surface to LN.},
doi = {10.1063/1.2191704},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 14,
volume = 88,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 03 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Mon Apr 03 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}