skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Effect of modified phosphate rock saturated by various salts on stack gas desulfurization in a fluidized bed reactor

Abstract

In this work, the suitability of phosphate ore treated with the varied salts such as FeSO{sub 4}, NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as an alternative material for limestone and dolomite in flue gas desulfurization has been investigated. Also, the effect of the varied salts on calcination and sulfation of the raw, calcine, and semicalcined phosphate samples has been investigated in a differential fluidized bed reactor at 700-800{sup o}C (4 min) in air and 0.3% SO{sub 2}. It was established that the salts have prominent effects on sulfation and calcination. The changes in the pore structure and products obtained at the end of sulfation were investigated using BET surface area method. In conclusion, it was observed that the sulfation and calcination conversion ratios generally increased when the phosphate rock was treated the varied salts.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Muhendislik Mimarlik Faculty
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
20752354
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery Utilisation and Environmental Effects; Journal Volume: 28; Journal Issue: 6
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; FLUE GAS; DESULFURIZATION; FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS; PHOSPHATES; ORES; ADSORBENTS; CALCINATION; SULFATION; PORE STRUCTURE

Citation Formats

Kar, Y., and Kar, H.. Effect of modified phosphate rock saturated by various salts on stack gas desulfurization in a fluidized bed reactor. United States: N. p., 2006. Web. doi:10.1080/009083190910280.
Kar, Y., & Kar, H.. Effect of modified phosphate rock saturated by various salts on stack gas desulfurization in a fluidized bed reactor. United States. doi:10.1080/009083190910280.
Kar, Y., and Kar, H.. Sat . "Effect of modified phosphate rock saturated by various salts on stack gas desulfurization in a fluidized bed reactor". United States. doi:10.1080/009083190910280.
@article{osti_20752354,
title = {Effect of modified phosphate rock saturated by various salts on stack gas desulfurization in a fluidized bed reactor},
author = {Kar, Y. and Kar, H.},
abstractNote = {In this work, the suitability of phosphate ore treated with the varied salts such as FeSO{sub 4}, NaCl, CaCl{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as an alternative material for limestone and dolomite in flue gas desulfurization has been investigated. Also, the effect of the varied salts on calcination and sulfation of the raw, calcine, and semicalcined phosphate samples has been investigated in a differential fluidized bed reactor at 700-800{sup o}C (4 min) in air and 0.3% SO{sub 2}. It was established that the salts have prominent effects on sulfation and calcination. The changes in the pore structure and products obtained at the end of sulfation were investigated using BET surface area method. In conclusion, it was observed that the sulfation and calcination conversion ratios generally increased when the phosphate rock was treated the varied salts.},
doi = {10.1080/009083190910280},
journal = {Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery Utilisation and Environmental Effects},
number = 6,
volume = 28,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006},
month = {Sat Apr 15 00:00:00 EDT 2006}
}
  • High-temperature high-pressure sulfur removal is considered to be one of the key steps in the hot gas cleanup train of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process. Regenerable mixed metal oxide sorbents such as zinc titanates are prime candidates for this purpose. As part of sulfur removal process development, Carbona Corp. is developing fluidized bed reactor models for scale-up. In the first part of this work, the parameters for the unreacted shrinking core and overlapping grain models were determined to describe the rate of zinc titanate in H{sub 2}S capture. A method using these sorbent particle conversion models for fluidizedmore » bed application is presented in this paper. Both models show a reasonably good fit to the high-pressure fluidized bed sulfidation test data, with the same order of magnitude parameters as obtained in the previously reported solid conversion rate tests.« less
  • In this work, dry desulfurization of simulated flue gas was investigated in a batchwise operated laboratory-scale stainless steel fluidized-bed reactor (46 x 500 mm{sup 2}) by using calcium-containing local Turkish limestone (Karaagach/MUS) which was calcined at 900 C with 5% H{sub 2}O vapor. The sulfation reaction was carried out in a broad range of temperature (200 {le} T({degree}C) {le} 900) and SO{sub 2} feedstock concentration (1000 {le} C(ppm SO{sub 2}) {le} 6000). The experimental sulfation conversion-time data were tested according to unreacted shrinking core model (SCM), changing the grain size model (GM) and random pore model (RPM). It was foundmore » that the random pore model with control of product layer (CaSO{sub 3}/CaSO{sub 4}) diffusion described the experimental data best.« less
  • Bench-scale experiments were conducted on the dry removal of SO/sub 2/ from gases using commercial samples of powdered limestone activated by adding 2 mole Vertical Bar3< of CaCl/sub 2/. The absorption was carried out in a fluidized bed traversed by the flue gases at 600/sup 0/-900/sup 0/C. The degree and rate of transformation of CaCO/sub 3/ to CaSO/sub 4/ in the presence of SO/sub 2/ and air were compared for unmodified and modified absorbents. Initial rates of reaction and the variation of the rate of absorption with time were measured and the influence of the SO/sub 2/ content of themore » gas was assessed. At 700/sup 0/C, the maximum degree of transformation of activated limestone to sulfate exceeded 90Vertical Bar3<, whereas untreated CaCO/sub 3/ was only transformed to 16-20Vertical Bar3<. At the same temperature, more than 90Vertical Bar3< of the SO/sub 2/ contained in a gas carrying 0.35Vertical Bar3< SO/sub 2/ was removed. The modified absorbent achieves the same amount of sulfur removal with 2-4 times less absorbent than the unmodified absorbent. Thus, the costs of the absorbent and its disposal are reduced.« less
  • Technical report:Bench scale improvements in the rate of sulfur dioxide fixation and in the ultimate degree of use of limestone absorbents for flue gas desulfurization are reported. Powdered limestone is activated by addition of calcium chloride. Absorption is carried out in a fluidized bed. Data are particularly promising in relation to the fluidized-bed combustion of coal. (1 diagram, 5 graphs, 2 tables)