skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Rolling Optimization of Transmission Network Recovery and Load Restoration Considering Hybrid Wind-Storage System and Cold Load Pickup

Journal Article · · International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems

A common solution to deal with the stochasticity introduced by fast-ramping wind power integration is to equip wind farms (WFs) with energy storage systems (ESSs) to formulate hybrid WF-ESSs. In addition to leveling off wind power fluctuations during normal operations, a hybrid WF-ESS can be a flexible power source to accumulate the power system restoration. In this paper, we propose a rolling optimization model for transmission network recovery and load restoration considering the contributions of WF-ESSs. The proposed model is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming problem that simultaneously optimizes the amount and location of restorable load blocks as well as the restoration lines. The cold load pickup features of interrupted loads considering the outage duration are modeled in detail. A chance-constrained method is employed to deal with the uncertainty of wind power, and a rolling horizon-based framework is adopted to reduce the influence of forecast error. Case studies are conducted on both New England 39-bus system and part of a provincial power system in China. The results show that the load restoration process can be significantly accelerated by employing the proposed method and contributions of hybrid WF-ESSs to power system restoration are validated.

Research Organization:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Organization:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
OSTI ID:
1865326
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5D00-82743; MainId:83516; UUID:d8ee43eb-d753-4d5a-91f6-71b216f77278; MainAdminID:64397
Journal Information:
International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 141
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

References (38)

The 2015 Ukraine Blackout: Implications for False Data Injection Attacks journal July 2017
Power System Restoration - The Second Task Force Report journal January 1987
A wide area monitoring system based load restoration method journal May 2013
An improved two-stage optimization for network and load recovery during power system restoration journal September 2019
Real-Time Optimized Load Recovery Considering Frequency Constraints journal November 2019
A Hierarchical Response-Based Approach to the Load Restoration Problem journal July 2017
Coordinating generation and load pickup during load restoration with discrete load increments and reserve constraints journal November 2015
Decision‐making method for critical load restoration by using MGs journal October 2019
A Model Predictive Control Based Generator Start-Up Optimization Strategy for Restoration With Microgrids as Black-Start Resources journal November 2018
Availability Assessment Based Case-Sensitive Power System Restoration Strategy journal March 2020
A Bi-Level Interval Robust Optimization Model for Service Restoration in Flexible Distribution Networks journal May 2021
SOP-based islanding partition method of active distribution networks considering the characteristics of DG, energy storage system and load journal July 2018
Data-driven stochastic service restoration in unbalanced active distribution networks with multi-terminal soft open points journal October 2020
Evaluating the Magnitude and Duration of Cold Load Pick-up on Residential Distribution Feeders Using Multi-State Load Models journal September 2016
Receding horizon load restoration for coupled transmission and distribution system considering load-source uncertainty journal March 2020
Fast Assessment of Frequency Response of Cold Load Pickup in Power System Restoration journal July 2016
DG Integrated Approach for Service Restoration Under Cold Load Pickup journal January 2010
Distribution transformer overloading capability under cold-load pickup conditions journal January 1990
Distribution Power System Reliability Assessment Considering Cold Load Pickup Events journal July 2018
Utility-Oriented Online Load Restoration Considering Wind Power Penetration journal April 2019
Multi-Time Step Service Restoration for Advanced Distribution Systems and Microgrids journal November 2018
Robust Distribution System Load Restoration With Time-Dependent Cold Load Pickup journal July 2021
The Anatomy of the 2016 South Australia Blackout: A Catastrophic Event in a High Renewable Network journal September 2018
Incorporating Wind Energy in Power System Restoration Planning journal January 2019
Distributed Risk-Limiting Load Restoration for Wind Power Penetrated Bulk System journal September 2020
Renewable energy sources for complete optimal power system black‐start restoration journal April 2015
Cooperation of Wind Power and Battery Storage to Provide Frequency Regulation in Power Markets journal September 2017
Automatic Generation Control Using an Energy Storage System in a Wind Park journal January 2018
Improving the Restorability of Bulk Power Systems With the Implementation of a WF-BESS System journal May 2019
Black start with dfig based distributed generation after major emergencies conference December 2006
Application of Type 3 Wind Turbines for System Restoration journal May 2018
A Distributed Black-Start Optimization Method for Global Transmission and Distribution Network journal September 2021
Optimization-Based Islanding of Power Networks Using Piecewise Linear AC Power Flow journal May 2014
A Data-Driven Framework for Assessing Cold Load Pick-Up Demand in Service Restoration journal November 2019
A Versatile Probability Distribution Model for Wind Power Forecast Errors and Its Application in Economic Dispatch journal August 2013
Design of a Least-Cost Battery-Supercapacitor Energy Storage System for Realizing Dispatchable Wind Power journal July 2013
Optimal Sizing and Control Strategies for Hybrid Storage System as Limited by Grid Frequency Deviations journal September 2018
Adaptive Robust Optimization With Dynamic Uncertainty Sets for Multi-Period Economic Dispatch Under Significant Wind journal July 2015