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Title: Record low ozone measured at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the austral spring of 1993

Abstract

The annual springtime ozone hole over Antarctica has been studied extensively since it was first reported. The University of Wyoming has participated in monitoring the development of the ozone hole over Antarctica since 1986 using balloonborne instruments to measure vertical profiles of ozone and particles at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. During austral spring 1993, record minimums in total column ozone were observed along with a record low within the main ozone layer at 12-20 kilometers (km). 6 refs., 2 figs.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
181801
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Antarctic Journal of the United States; Journal Volume: 29; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: PBD: 1994
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; OZONE LAYER; ANNUAL VARIATIONS; OZONE; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ANTARCTICA

Citation Formats

Johnson, B.J., and Deshler, T. Record low ozone measured at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the austral spring of 1993. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Johnson, B.J., & Deshler, T. Record low ozone measured at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the austral spring of 1993. United States.
Johnson, B.J., and Deshler, T. 1994. "Record low ozone measured at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the austral spring of 1993". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_181801,
title = {Record low ozone measured at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, during the austral spring of 1993},
author = {Johnson, B.J. and Deshler, T.},
abstractNote = {The annual springtime ozone hole over Antarctica has been studied extensively since it was first reported. The University of Wyoming has participated in monitoring the development of the ozone hole over Antarctica since 1986 using balloonborne instruments to measure vertical profiles of ozone and particles at McMurdo Station, Antarctica. During austral spring 1993, record minimums in total column ozone were observed along with a record low within the main ozone layer at 12-20 kilometers (km). 6 refs., 2 figs.},
doi = {},
journal = {Antarctic Journal of the United States},
number = 5,
volume = 29,
place = {United States},
year = 1994,
month =
}
  • Record low ozone was measured by balloon-borne ozonesondes (40 flights) at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (78 deg S) during the 1993 austral spring. Total column ozone declined by 55% from an initial 275 Dobson Units (DU) on 30 August to a minimum of 130 +/- 7 DU on 2 October. Ozone within the 12-20 km showed a 95% decrease from an initial 138 DU in August to a record low 7 DU on 19 October. Probable cause of the 1993 record low ozone, based on balloon-borne observations at McMurdo include: the presence of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol layer between 11 andmore » 16 km (though decreased from the 1992 season); a colder than normal stratosphere over McMurdo (183 K minimum); and a relatively stable polar vortex which delayed the intrusion of high levels of ozone from outside the polar vortex wall until after 22 October. These conditions provided an optimum environment for the formation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs), essential to the heterogeneous chemistry that subsequently leads to the catalytic destruction of ozone by reactive chlorine.« less
  • This paper reports some of the findings of an overall study of the ozone hole over Antarctica. Vertical profiles of ozone and aerosols were measured, and the inclusion of aerosols from the June 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was of particular interest. 4 refs., 2 figs.
  • Thirty-seven vertical profiles of ozone and temperature were measured at McMurdo Station, Antarctica (78[degrees]S) from 23 August to 31 October 1992. Total column ozone dropped from an initial 223 Dobson Units (DU) on 24 August to 158 DU on 27 September. The 12-20 km column reached a record low of 17 DU on 9 October, an 84% loss compared to the initial value of 106 DU. The most severely depleted layer was between 12 and 15 km which coincided with the volcanic aerosol layer (11-16 km) observed by aerosol counter flights and the Italian Lidar at McMurdo. By the endmore » of September the polar vortex elongated and shifted away from McMurdo. Subsequent profiles, above 20 km altitude, were typically 15-20[degrees]C warmer and ozone concentrations were 50-100% higher for the remainder of the measurement period. The 12-16 km layer, however, remained 80 to 97% depleted compared to the initial profile. 9 refs., 5 figs.« less
  • Vertical profiles of ozone and temperature were measured on 40 occasions during the austral spring of 1990 at McMurdo Station, Antarctica, and once again near record levels of ozone depletion were observed. Total ozone decreased from 260 DU in late August to its minimum value of 145 DU on 9 October, when the ozonesonde was at it's lower detection limit from 15 to 16.5 km. Ozone reductions were observed almost exclusively between 12 and 20 km, with a half life of 20 days. This is similar to previous years. Although McMurdo was within the polar vortex for most of themore » period, there were several occasions when the edge of the vortex was over McMurdo. During these periods, ozone above 20 km approximately doubled, but below 20 km remained relatively unchanged.« less
  • Ozone and temperature profiles were measured in 50 balloon flights at McMurdo Station (78{degree}S) during the spring of 1987. Compared to similar data obtained in 1986, stratospheric temperatures were lower and the springtime Antarctic ozone reduction was greater in magnitude, extended to higher altitude, and proceeded at a higher rate in 1987. Ozone partial pressures reached values as low as 3 nbar (as compared to about 10 nbar in 1986) in the 16- to 18-km region in early and late October, down from about 150 nbar in late August. These low values suggest essentially complete removal of ozone in thismore » region. The upper boundary of the depletion region was observed to be 2-3 km higher than in 1986, extending to altitudes as high as 24 km in mid-September. When averaged over September, the ozone mixing ratio at 18 km decayed with a half-life of only 12.4 days, as compared to about 28 days in 1986. Adiabatic vertical motions over 1- to 2-km intervals between 12 and 20 km with consequent ozone reductions were observed in association with the formation of nacreous clouds, indicating these to be rare events on a local scale probably associated with mountain lee waves.« less