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Title: Alternate Fuel Vehicles in Tunnels

Technical Report ·
DOI:· OSTI ID:1734627

Many types of vehicles using fuels that differ from typical hydrocarbons such as gasoline and diesel are in use throughout the world. These include vehicles running on the combustion of natural gas and propane as well as electrical drive vehicles utilizing batteries or hydrogen as energy storage. These alternative fuels pose hazards that are different from traditional fuels and the safety of these vehicles are being questioned in areas such as tunnels and other enclosed spaces. Much scientific research and analysis has been conducted on tunnel and garage hazard scenarios; however, the data and conclusions might not seem to be immediately applicable to highway tunnel owners and authorities having jurisdiction over tunnels. This report provides a comprehensive, concise summary of the literature available characterizing the various hazards presented by all alternative fuel vehicles, including light-duty, medium- and heavy-duty, as well as buses. Research characterizing both worst-case and more plausible scenarios and risk-based analysis is also summarized Gaps in the research are identified in order to guide future research efforts to provide a complete analysis of the hazards and recommendations for the use of alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels.

Research Organization:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Organization:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Sustainable Transportation Office. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Office
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000; NA0003525
Report Number(s):
SAND-2020-5466; 686452
Country of Publication:
United States