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Title: Source attribution of Arctic black carbon and sulfate aerosols and associated Arctic surface warming during 1980–2018

Abstract

Observations show that the concentrations of Arctic sulfate and black carbon (BC) aerosols have declined since the early 1980s. Previous studies have reported that reducing sulfate aerosols potentially contributed to the recent rapid Arctic warming. In this study, a global aerosol–climate model (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5) equipped with Explicit Aerosol Source Tagging (CAM5-EAST) is applied to quantify the source apportionment of aerosols in the Arctic from 16 source regions and the role of aerosol variations in affecting changes in the Arctic surface temperature from 1980 to 2018. The CAM5-EAST simulated surface concentrations of sulfate and BC in the Arctic had a decrease of 43% and 23%, respectively, in 2014–2018 relative to 1980–1984 mainly due to the reduction of emissions from Europe, Russia and local Arctic sources. Increases in emissions from South and East Asia led to positive trends in Arctic sulfate and BC in the upper troposphere. All aerosol radiative impacts are considered including aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions, as well as black carbon deposition on snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Within the Arctic, sulfate reductions caused a top-of-atmosphere (TOA) warming of 0.11 and 0.25 W m -2 through aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions, respectively. While the changes in Arctic atmospheric BCmore » has little impact on local radiative forcing, the decrease in BC in snow and ice led to a net cooling of 0.05 W m -2. By applying climate sensitivity factors for different latitudinal bands, global changes in sulfate and BC during 2014–2018 (with respect to 1980–1984) exerted a +0.088 and 0.057 K Arctic surface warming, respectively, through aerosol–radiation interactions. Through aerosol–cloud interactions, the sulfate reduction caused an Arctic warming of +0.193 K between the two time periods. The weakened BC effect on snow–ice albedo led to an Arctic surface cooling of -0.041 K. The changes in atmospheric sulfate and BC outside the Arctic produced a total Arctic warming of +0.25 K, the majority of which is due to the midlatitude changes in radiative forcing. Our results suggest that changes in aerosols over the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere have a larger impact on Arctic temperature than other regions through enhanced poleward heat transport. The combined total effects of sulfate and BC produced an Arctic surface warming of +0.297 K, explaining approximately 20% of the observed Arctic warming since the early 1980s.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [2];  [1];  [1]
  1. Nanjing Univ. of Information Science and Technology, Jiangsu (China). Jiangsu Key Lab. of Atmospheric Environment Monitoring and Pollution Control
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC); National Key Research and Development Program of China
OSTI Identifier:
1668262
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-151932
Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-76RL01830; 41975159; 2019YFA0606800
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 20; Journal Issue: 14; Journal ID: ISSN 1680-7324
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Ren, Lili, Yang, Yang, Wang, Hailong, Zhang, Rudong, Wang, Pinya, and Liao, Hong. Source attribution of Arctic black carbon and sulfate aerosols and associated Arctic surface warming during 1980–2018. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.5194/acp-20-9067-2020.
Ren, Lili, Yang, Yang, Wang, Hailong, Zhang, Rudong, Wang, Pinya, & Liao, Hong. Source attribution of Arctic black carbon and sulfate aerosols and associated Arctic surface warming during 1980–2018. United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-9067-2020
Ren, Lili, Yang, Yang, Wang, Hailong, Zhang, Rudong, Wang, Pinya, and Liao, Hong. Thu . "Source attribution of Arctic black carbon and sulfate aerosols and associated Arctic surface warming during 1980–2018". United States. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-20-9067-2020. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1668262.
@article{osti_1668262,
title = {Source attribution of Arctic black carbon and sulfate aerosols and associated Arctic surface warming during 1980–2018},
author = {Ren, Lili and Yang, Yang and Wang, Hailong and Zhang, Rudong and Wang, Pinya and Liao, Hong},
abstractNote = {Observations show that the concentrations of Arctic sulfate and black carbon (BC) aerosols have declined since the early 1980s. Previous studies have reported that reducing sulfate aerosols potentially contributed to the recent rapid Arctic warming. In this study, a global aerosol–climate model (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5) equipped with Explicit Aerosol Source Tagging (CAM5-EAST) is applied to quantify the source apportionment of aerosols in the Arctic from 16 source regions and the role of aerosol variations in affecting changes in the Arctic surface temperature from 1980 to 2018. The CAM5-EAST simulated surface concentrations of sulfate and BC in the Arctic had a decrease of 43% and 23%, respectively, in 2014–2018 relative to 1980–1984 mainly due to the reduction of emissions from Europe, Russia and local Arctic sources. Increases in emissions from South and East Asia led to positive trends in Arctic sulfate and BC in the upper troposphere. All aerosol radiative impacts are considered including aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions, as well as black carbon deposition on snow- and ice-covered surfaces. Within the Arctic, sulfate reductions caused a top-of-atmosphere (TOA) warming of 0.11 and 0.25 W m-2 through aerosol–radiation and aerosol–cloud interactions, respectively. While the changes in Arctic atmospheric BC has little impact on local radiative forcing, the decrease in BC in snow and ice led to a net cooling of 0.05 W m-2. By applying climate sensitivity factors for different latitudinal bands, global changes in sulfate and BC during 2014–2018 (with respect to 1980–1984) exerted a +0.088 and 0.057 K Arctic surface warming, respectively, through aerosol–radiation interactions. Through aerosol–cloud interactions, the sulfate reduction caused an Arctic warming of +0.193 K between the two time periods. The weakened BC effect on snow–ice albedo led to an Arctic surface cooling of -0.041 K. The changes in atmospheric sulfate and BC outside the Arctic produced a total Arctic warming of +0.25 K, the majority of which is due to the midlatitude changes in radiative forcing. Our results suggest that changes in aerosols over the midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere have a larger impact on Arctic temperature than other regions through enhanced poleward heat transport. The combined total effects of sulfate and BC produced an Arctic surface warming of +0.297 K, explaining approximately 20% of the observed Arctic warming since the early 1980s.},
doi = {10.5194/acp-20-9067-2020},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1668262}, journal = {Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (Online)},
issn = {1680-7324},
number = 14,
volume = 20,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {7}
}

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