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Title: Second Annual Progress Report on Correlation Between Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Neutron-Irradiated Ferritic-Martensitic and Austenitic Steels

Abstract

Ferritic-martensitic steels G92-2b (an optimized Grade 92 heat), NF616 and T91, and austenitic stainless steel 800H and its Grain Boundary Engineering (GBE)-treated version 800H-TMP (ThermoMechanical Processing) were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) of Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Selected G92-2b samples were irradiated up to 14.66 dpa in the HFIR at two temperature ranges: 400–496.7°C and 683.3– 720°C. NF616 and T91 were irradiated in the ATR up to 8.16 dpa with the irradiation temperatures ranged from 241°C to 447.5°C. Alloy 800H and 800H-TMP samples were irradiated in both the HFIR and the ATR. Selected 800H and 800H-TMP samples had HFIR irradiation to 1.28 dpa at 580°C and ATR irradiation up to 9.12 dpa at 359°C to 431°C. Vickers hardness measurements, fractography, and microstructural characterization were performed on the selected samples in the Low Activation Materials Design and Analysis (LAMDA) laboratory. Radiation-hardening of G92-2b was observed at the lower doses and lower irradiation temperatures (400- 496.7°C), with GB03 (0.52 dpa at 400°C) and GB04 (7.44 dpa at ~490°C) showing ~12% and ~8% hardening, respectively. Softening by ~14% was observed for GB05 (14.66 dpa at 496.7°C). Radiationsoftening ofmore » G92-2b was more prevalent at the higher irradiation temperatures (683.3-~720°C), with GB10 (0.46 dpa at 683.3°C), GB11 (7.44 dpa at ~720°C), and GB12 (14.63 dpa at ~720°C) showing ~8%, ~8%, and ~40% softening, respectively. Radiation-hardening of NF616 and T91 was observed with the hardness increased by ~37% to ~65% depending on the irradiation doses and irradiation temperatures. Within the studied irradiation conditions of NF616 and T91, samples with a higher dose had a larger hardness after irradiation. All the tested alloy 800H and 800H-TMP samples in this work showed radiation-hardening by ~96±7% to ~152±10%. Alloy 800H-TMP tended to have slightly smaller radiation-hardening than alloy 800H. The fractography results of G92-2b sample GB03, GB10, and GB11, together with the previously characterized fractography of GB04, GB05, and GB12, indicated that the ductility of G92-2b was maintained up to 14.66 dpa at the lower irradiation temperatures of 400-496.7°C, while some loss of ductility (less necking) was observed for higher doses at the higher irradiation temperatures of 683.3-720°C. This agrees with the previously reported tensile test results of G92-2b, where the elongation of G92-2b was reduced at higher doses at the higher irradiation temperatures. Dimple sizes increased at higher doses, which are more evident at the higher irradiation temperatures of 683.3-~720°C. The fractography of NF616 sample D2 (2.96 dpa at 291.5°C), D4 (5.91 dpa at 359°C), and D6 (8.16 dpa at 431°C) indicated loss of ductility with negligible necking for sample D2, while ductile failure for samples D4 and D6. Fractography of alloy 800H and 800H-TMP samples in various irradiation conditions showed ductile failure with obvious necking. Dimples were observed, with some of them containing large Ti-rich particles, in all the 800H/800H-TMP samples. Electron backscatter diffraction characterization of GB12 indicated the recovery of the lath structure, which was generally replaced by an equiaxed grain structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization showed the presence of frequent M 23C 6 (M = primarily Cr), MX (M = primarily V), spherical Nb(C,N) precipitates, and occasional Laves phase precipitates in the G92-2b samples. MX precipitates with sizes of 20-30 nm were observed at boundaries of smaller grains, indicating the pinning effect of the V-rich precipitates. The lath structure recovery was more evident at the higher irradiation temperatures (683.3-~720°C), with decreased densities of line dislocations and M23C6 precipitates. The irradiated T91 (TA04) showed the growth of M23C6 precipitates to 101 ± 40 nm from the initial 68 ± 22 nm in the unirradiated condition. Dislocation loops of both {100} and {111} types were present in TA04. TEM characterization was also performed on the irradiated 800H (N4, N5, N6, and AR2) and 800H-TMP (P4, P5, P6, and HG1). Accumulation of M 23C 6 precipitates at grain boundaries was observed in all the xii 800H/800H-TMP samples, and the presence of Ti(C,N) precipitates at grain boundaries and in the matrix was observed in the irradiated 800H-TMP. Some Ti(C,N) precipitates are embedded in the M 23C 6 precipitates, maintaining specific orientation relationships between the precipitates and between the precipitate and matrix. In addition, nanoscale Si-rich clusters were observed in the matrix of all the 800H/800H-TMP samples, with EDS Si maps tending to have a lower contrast in 800H-TMP samples. Atom probe tomography was conducted on the same samples, supported by a Rapid Turnaround Examination project under Nuclear Science User Facilities. The results are being analyzed to be integrated with the TEM results for a confident description of the γ’ precipitates. Dislocation loops also formed in all the 800H/800H-TMP samples. The density and the average size of dislocation loops were quantified to be in the order of 10 22 – 10 23 m -3 and 11.7 – 15.9 nm, respectively, in the ATR-irradiated 800H/800H-TMP samples. The loop densities in irradiated 800H were higher than that in irradiated 800H-TMP under the same irradiation conditions. Further systematic data analyses, together with some complementary experiments, will be pursued for these samples to foster peer-reviewed journal article publications.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1651349
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2020/1471
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Zhong, Weicheng, and Tan, Lizhen. Second Annual Progress Report on Correlation Between Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Neutron-Irradiated Ferritic-Martensitic and Austenitic Steels. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.2172/1651349.
Zhong, Weicheng, & Tan, Lizhen. Second Annual Progress Report on Correlation Between Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Neutron-Irradiated Ferritic-Martensitic and Austenitic Steels. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1651349
Zhong, Weicheng, and Tan, Lizhen. Sat . "Second Annual Progress Report on Correlation Between Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Neutron-Irradiated Ferritic-Martensitic and Austenitic Steels". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1651349. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1651349.
@article{osti_1651349,
title = {Second Annual Progress Report on Correlation Between Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Neutron-Irradiated Ferritic-Martensitic and Austenitic Steels},
author = {Zhong, Weicheng and Tan, Lizhen},
abstractNote = {Ferritic-martensitic steels G92-2b (an optimized Grade 92 heat), NF616 and T91, and austenitic stainless steel 800H and its Grain Boundary Engineering (GBE)-treated version 800H-TMP (ThermoMechanical Processing) were irradiated in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) of Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Selected G92-2b samples were irradiated up to 14.66 dpa in the HFIR at two temperature ranges: 400–496.7°C and 683.3– 720°C. NF616 and T91 were irradiated in the ATR up to 8.16 dpa with the irradiation temperatures ranged from 241°C to 447.5°C. Alloy 800H and 800H-TMP samples were irradiated in both the HFIR and the ATR. Selected 800H and 800H-TMP samples had HFIR irradiation to 1.28 dpa at 580°C and ATR irradiation up to 9.12 dpa at 359°C to 431°C. Vickers hardness measurements, fractography, and microstructural characterization were performed on the selected samples in the Low Activation Materials Design and Analysis (LAMDA) laboratory. Radiation-hardening of G92-2b was observed at the lower doses and lower irradiation temperatures (400- 496.7°C), with GB03 (0.52 dpa at 400°C) and GB04 (7.44 dpa at ~490°C) showing ~12% and ~8% hardening, respectively. Softening by ~14% was observed for GB05 (14.66 dpa at 496.7°C). Radiationsoftening of G92-2b was more prevalent at the higher irradiation temperatures (683.3-~720°C), with GB10 (0.46 dpa at 683.3°C), GB11 (7.44 dpa at ~720°C), and GB12 (14.63 dpa at ~720°C) showing ~8%, ~8%, and ~40% softening, respectively. Radiation-hardening of NF616 and T91 was observed with the hardness increased by ~37% to ~65% depending on the irradiation doses and irradiation temperatures. Within the studied irradiation conditions of NF616 and T91, samples with a higher dose had a larger hardness after irradiation. All the tested alloy 800H and 800H-TMP samples in this work showed radiation-hardening by ~96±7% to ~152±10%. Alloy 800H-TMP tended to have slightly smaller radiation-hardening than alloy 800H. The fractography results of G92-2b sample GB03, GB10, and GB11, together with the previously characterized fractography of GB04, GB05, and GB12, indicated that the ductility of G92-2b was maintained up to 14.66 dpa at the lower irradiation temperatures of 400-496.7°C, while some loss of ductility (less necking) was observed for higher doses at the higher irradiation temperatures of 683.3-720°C. This agrees with the previously reported tensile test results of G92-2b, where the elongation of G92-2b was reduced at higher doses at the higher irradiation temperatures. Dimple sizes increased at higher doses, which are more evident at the higher irradiation temperatures of 683.3-~720°C. The fractography of NF616 sample D2 (2.96 dpa at 291.5°C), D4 (5.91 dpa at 359°C), and D6 (8.16 dpa at 431°C) indicated loss of ductility with negligible necking for sample D2, while ductile failure for samples D4 and D6. Fractography of alloy 800H and 800H-TMP samples in various irradiation conditions showed ductile failure with obvious necking. Dimples were observed, with some of them containing large Ti-rich particles, in all the 800H/800H-TMP samples. Electron backscatter diffraction characterization of GB12 indicated the recovery of the lath structure, which was generally replaced by an equiaxed grain structure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization showed the presence of frequent M23C6 (M = primarily Cr), MX (M = primarily V), spherical Nb(C,N) precipitates, and occasional Laves phase precipitates in the G92-2b samples. MX precipitates with sizes of 20-30 nm were observed at boundaries of smaller grains, indicating the pinning effect of the V-rich precipitates. The lath structure recovery was more evident at the higher irradiation temperatures (683.3-~720°C), with decreased densities of line dislocations and M23C6 precipitates. The irradiated T91 (TA04) showed the growth of M23C6 precipitates to 101 ± 40 nm from the initial 68 ± 22 nm in the unirradiated condition. Dislocation loops of both {100} and {111} types were present in TA04. TEM characterization was also performed on the irradiated 800H (N4, N5, N6, and AR2) and 800H-TMP (P4, P5, P6, and HG1). Accumulation of M23C6 precipitates at grain boundaries was observed in all the xii 800H/800H-TMP samples, and the presence of Ti(C,N) precipitates at grain boundaries and in the matrix was observed in the irradiated 800H-TMP. Some Ti(C,N) precipitates are embedded in the M23C6 precipitates, maintaining specific orientation relationships between the precipitates and between the precipitate and matrix. In addition, nanoscale Si-rich clusters were observed in the matrix of all the 800H/800H-TMP samples, with EDS Si maps tending to have a lower contrast in 800H-TMP samples. Atom probe tomography was conducted on the same samples, supported by a Rapid Turnaround Examination project under Nuclear Science User Facilities. The results are being analyzed to be integrated with the TEM results for a confident description of the γ’ precipitates. Dislocation loops also formed in all the 800H/800H-TMP samples. The density and the average size of dislocation loops were quantified to be in the order of 1022 – 1023 m-3 and 11.7 – 15.9 nm, respectively, in the ATR-irradiated 800H/800H-TMP samples. The loop densities in irradiated 800H were higher than that in irradiated 800H-TMP under the same irradiation conditions. Further systematic data analyses, together with some complementary experiments, will be pursued for these samples to foster peer-reviewed journal article publications.},
doi = {10.2172/1651349},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1651349}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {2}
}