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Title: In Situ Study of Particle Precipitation in Metal-Doped CeO2 during Thermal Treatment and Ion Irradiation for Emulation of Irradiating Fuels

Abstract

Metallic particles formed in oxide fuels (e.g., UO 2) during neutron irradiation have an adverse impact on fuel performance. A fundamental investigation of particle precipitation is needed to predict the fuel performance and potentially improve fuel designs and operations. In this study, we report on the precipitation of Mo-dominant β-phase particles in polycrystalline CeO 2 (surrogate for UO 2) films doped with Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Re (surrogate for Tc). In situ heating scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates that particle precipitation starts at ~1073 K with a limited particle growth to ~10 nm. While particle concentration increases with increasing temperature, particle size remains largely unchanged up to 1273 K. There is a dramatic change in the microstructure following vacuum annealing at 1373 K, probably due to phase transition of reduced cerium oxide. At the high temperature, particles grow up to 75 nm or larger with distinctive facets. The particles are predominantly composed of Mo with a body-centered cubic structure (β phase). An oxide layer was observed after storage at ambient conditions. In situ heating X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals an increasing reduction of Ce charge state from 4+ to 3+ in the doped CeO 2 film at temperatures from 673more » to 1273 K. In situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscopy with 2 MeV Al 2+ ions up to a dose of ~20 displacements per atom at nominally room temperature does not lead to precipitation of visible particles. However, irradiation with 1.7 MeV Au 3+ ions to ~10 dpa at 973 K produces ~2 nm sized pure Pd particles; Au 3+ irradiation at 1173 K appears to result in precipitates of ~6 nm in size. Some of the defects produced by ion irradiation could be nucleation sites for precipitation, leading to generation of smaller particles with a higher concentration.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program; USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)
OSTI Identifier:
1650178
Report Number(s):
SAND-2020-8448J
Journal ID: ISSN 1932-7447; 689953
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000; AC05-76RL01830; NA-0003525
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Physical Chemistry. C
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 123; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 1932-7447
Publisher:
American Chemical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
palladium; nanoparticles; ions; precipitation; irradiation; metal particle precipitation; in-situ heating STEM; I3TEM; in-situ heating XPS; ceria

Citation Formats

Jiang, Weilin, Conroy, Michele A., Kruska, Karen, Olszta, Matthew J., Droubay, Timothy C., Schwantes, Jon M., Taylor, Caitlin A., Price, Patrick M., Hattar, Khalid, and Devanathan, Ram. In Situ Study of Particle Precipitation in Metal-Doped CeO2 during Thermal Treatment and Ion Irradiation for Emulation of Irradiating Fuels. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b11027.
Jiang, Weilin, Conroy, Michele A., Kruska, Karen, Olszta, Matthew J., Droubay, Timothy C., Schwantes, Jon M., Taylor, Caitlin A., Price, Patrick M., Hattar, Khalid, & Devanathan, Ram. In Situ Study of Particle Precipitation in Metal-Doped CeO2 during Thermal Treatment and Ion Irradiation for Emulation of Irradiating Fuels. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b11027.
Jiang, Weilin, Conroy, Michele A., Kruska, Karen, Olszta, Matthew J., Droubay, Timothy C., Schwantes, Jon M., Taylor, Caitlin A., Price, Patrick M., Hattar, Khalid, and Devanathan, Ram. Tue . "In Situ Study of Particle Precipitation in Metal-Doped CeO2 during Thermal Treatment and Ion Irradiation for Emulation of Irradiating Fuels". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b11027. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1650178.
@article{osti_1650178,
title = {In Situ Study of Particle Precipitation in Metal-Doped CeO2 during Thermal Treatment and Ion Irradiation for Emulation of Irradiating Fuels},
author = {Jiang, Weilin and Conroy, Michele A. and Kruska, Karen and Olszta, Matthew J. and Droubay, Timothy C. and Schwantes, Jon M. and Taylor, Caitlin A. and Price, Patrick M. and Hattar, Khalid and Devanathan, Ram},
abstractNote = {Metallic particles formed in oxide fuels (e.g., UO2) during neutron irradiation have an adverse impact on fuel performance. A fundamental investigation of particle precipitation is needed to predict the fuel performance and potentially improve fuel designs and operations. In this study, we report on the precipitation of Mo-dominant β-phase particles in polycrystalline CeO2 (surrogate for UO2) films doped with Mo, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Re (surrogate for Tc). In situ heating scanning transmission electron microscopy indicates that particle precipitation starts at ~1073 K with a limited particle growth to ~10 nm. While particle concentration increases with increasing temperature, particle size remains largely unchanged up to 1273 K. There is a dramatic change in the microstructure following vacuum annealing at 1373 K, probably due to phase transition of reduced cerium oxide. At the high temperature, particles grow up to 75 nm or larger with distinctive facets. The particles are predominantly composed of Mo with a body-centered cubic structure (β phase). An oxide layer was observed after storage at ambient conditions. In situ heating X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals an increasing reduction of Ce charge state from 4+ to 3+ in the doped CeO2 film at temperatures from 673 to 1273 K. In situ ion irradiation transmission electron microscopy with 2 MeV Al2+ ions up to a dose of ~20 displacements per atom at nominally room temperature does not lead to precipitation of visible particles. However, irradiation with 1.7 MeV Au3+ ions to ~10 dpa at 973 K produces ~2 nm sized pure Pd particles; Au3+ irradiation at 1173 K appears to result in precipitates of ~6 nm in size. Some of the defects produced by ion irradiation could be nucleation sites for precipitation, leading to generation of smaller particles with a higher concentration.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b11027},
journal = {Journal of Physical Chemistry. C},
issn = {1932-7447},
number = 4,
volume = 123,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {1}
}

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