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Title: Hydrogen Refueling Reference Station Lot Size Analysis for Urban Sites.

Abstract

Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) is a project initiated by the DOE in 2015 and executed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to address R&D barriers to the deployment of hydrogen fueling infrastructure. One key barrier to the deployment of fueling stations is the land area they require (i.e. "footprint"). Space is particularly a constraint in dense urban areas where hydrogen demand is high but space for fueling stations is limited. This work presents current fire code requirements that inform station footprint, then identifies and quantifies opportunities to reduce footprint without altering the safety profile of fueling stations. Opportunities analyzed include potential new methods of hydrogen delivery, as well as alternative placements of station technologies (i.e. rooftop/underground fuel storage). As interest in heavy-duty fueling stations and other markets for hydrogen grows, this study can inform techniques to reduce the footprint of heavy-duty stations as well. This work characterizes generic designs for stations with a capacity of 600 kg/day hydrogen dispensed and 4 dispenser hoses. Three base case designs (delivered gas, delivered liquid, and on-site electrolysis production) have been modified in 5 different ways to study the impacts of recently released fire code changes,more » colocation with gasoline refueling, alternate delivery assumptions, underground storage of hydrogen, and rooftop storage of hydrogen, resulting in a total of 32 different station designs. The footprints of the base case stations range from 13,000 to 21,000 ft 2 . A significant focus of this study is the NFPA 2 requirements, especially the prescribed setback distances for bulk gaseous or liquid hydrogen storage. While the prescribed distances are large in some cases, these setback distances are found to have a nuanced impact on station lot size; considerations of the delivery truck path, traffic flow, parking, and convenience store location are also important. Station designs that utilize underground and rooftop storage can reduce footprint but may not be practical or economical. For example, burying hydrogen storage tanks underground can reduce footprint, but the cost savings they enable depend on the cost of burial and the cost land. Siting and economic analysis of station lot sizes illustrate the benefit of smaller station footprints in the flexibility and cost savings they can provide. This study can be used as a reference that provides examples of the key design differences that fueling stations can incorporate, the approximate sizes of generic station lots, and considerations that might be unique to particular designs. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology Project (H2FIRST) is a DOE project initiated in 2015 and executed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The objective of H2FIRST is to ensure that fuel cell electric vehicle customers have a positive fueling experience relative to conventional gasoline/diesel stations as vehicles are introduced and transition to advanced refueling technology beyond. In addition to DOE, the team wishes to thank the H 2 USA Hydrogen Fueling Station Working Group, the California Fuel Cell Partnership, the California Energy Commission, the California Air Resources Board, and representatives from industry, including Air Products, Air Liquide, First Element Fuel, H2 Logic, Hydrogenics, ITM Power, Linde, Nuvera, PDC Machines, Proton On Site, Hexagon Lincoln, and Siemens AG for their input and support. The authors would also like to thank Chris La Fleur from Sandia National Laboratories for many useful discussions and insightful feedback. The authors also thank Austin Baird for his review of this report. The authors would also like to thank Joseph Pratt from Golden Gate Zero Emission Marine (previously at Sandia National Laboratories) for his leadership, knowledge, and guidance on this effort.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. intern
  2. NREL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Fuel Cell Technologies Office (EE-3F)
OSTI Identifier:
1604872
Report Number(s):
SAND2020-2796
684729
DOE Contract Number:  
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Ehrhart, Brian David, Bran Anleu, Gabriela A., Sena, Ethan, Muna, Alice Baca, Ye, Dongmei, Hecht, Ethan, and Rivkin, Carl. Hydrogen Refueling Reference Station Lot Size Analysis for Urban Sites.. United States: N. p., 2020. Web. doi:10.2172/1604872.
Ehrhart, Brian David, Bran Anleu, Gabriela A., Sena, Ethan, Muna, Alice Baca, Ye, Dongmei, Hecht, Ethan, & Rivkin, Carl. Hydrogen Refueling Reference Station Lot Size Analysis for Urban Sites.. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1604872
Ehrhart, Brian David, Bran Anleu, Gabriela A., Sena, Ethan, Muna, Alice Baca, Ye, Dongmei, Hecht, Ethan, and Rivkin, Carl. Sun . "Hydrogen Refueling Reference Station Lot Size Analysis for Urban Sites.". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1604872. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1604872.
@article{osti_1604872,
title = {Hydrogen Refueling Reference Station Lot Size Analysis for Urban Sites.},
author = {Ehrhart, Brian David and Bran Anleu, Gabriela A. and Sena, Ethan and Muna, Alice Baca and Ye, Dongmei and Hecht, Ethan and Rivkin, Carl},
abstractNote = {Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) is a project initiated by the DOE in 2015 and executed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to address R&D barriers to the deployment of hydrogen fueling infrastructure. One key barrier to the deployment of fueling stations is the land area they require (i.e. "footprint"). Space is particularly a constraint in dense urban areas where hydrogen demand is high but space for fueling stations is limited. This work presents current fire code requirements that inform station footprint, then identifies and quantifies opportunities to reduce footprint without altering the safety profile of fueling stations. Opportunities analyzed include potential new methods of hydrogen delivery, as well as alternative placements of station technologies (i.e. rooftop/underground fuel storage). As interest in heavy-duty fueling stations and other markets for hydrogen grows, this study can inform techniques to reduce the footprint of heavy-duty stations as well. This work characterizes generic designs for stations with a capacity of 600 kg/day hydrogen dispensed and 4 dispenser hoses. Three base case designs (delivered gas, delivered liquid, and on-site electrolysis production) have been modified in 5 different ways to study the impacts of recently released fire code changes, colocation with gasoline refueling, alternate delivery assumptions, underground storage of hydrogen, and rooftop storage of hydrogen, resulting in a total of 32 different station designs. The footprints of the base case stations range from 13,000 to 21,000 ft 2 . A significant focus of this study is the NFPA 2 requirements, especially the prescribed setback distances for bulk gaseous or liquid hydrogen storage. While the prescribed distances are large in some cases, these setback distances are found to have a nuanced impact on station lot size; considerations of the delivery truck path, traffic flow, parking, and convenience store location are also important. Station designs that utilize underground and rooftop storage can reduce footprint but may not be practical or economical. For example, burying hydrogen storage tanks underground can reduce footprint, but the cost savings they enable depend on the cost of burial and the cost land. Siting and economic analysis of station lot sizes illustrate the benefit of smaller station footprints in the flexibility and cost savings they can provide. This study can be used as a reference that provides examples of the key design differences that fueling stations can incorporate, the approximate sizes of generic station lots, and considerations that might be unique to particular designs. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology Project (H2FIRST) is a DOE project initiated in 2015 and executed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The objective of H2FIRST is to ensure that fuel cell electric vehicle customers have a positive fueling experience relative to conventional gasoline/diesel stations as vehicles are introduced and transition to advanced refueling technology beyond. In addition to DOE, the team wishes to thank the H 2 USA Hydrogen Fueling Station Working Group, the California Fuel Cell Partnership, the California Energy Commission, the California Air Resources Board, and representatives from industry, including Air Products, Air Liquide, First Element Fuel, H2 Logic, Hydrogenics, ITM Power, Linde, Nuvera, PDC Machines, Proton On Site, Hexagon Lincoln, and Siemens AG for their input and support. The authors would also like to thank Chris La Fleur from Sandia National Laboratories for many useful discussions and insightful feedback. The authors also thank Austin Baird for his review of this report. The authors would also like to thank Joseph Pratt from Golden Gate Zero Emission Marine (previously at Sandia National Laboratories) for his leadership, knowledge, and guidance on this effort.},
doi = {10.2172/1604872},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1604872}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2020},
month = {3}
}