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Title: Hydrogen Refueling Reference Station Lot Size Analysis for Urban Sites

Technical Report ·
DOI:· OSTI ID:1604872
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Albuquerque, NM, and Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) is a project initiated by the DOE in 2015 and executed by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to address R&D barriers to the deployment of hydrogen fueling infrastructure. One key barrier to the deployment of fueling stations is the land area they require (i.e. "footprint"). Space is particularly a constraint in dense urban areas where hydrogen demand is high but space for fueling stations is limited. This work presents current fire code requirements that inform station footprint, then identifies and quantifies opportunities to reduce footprint without altering the safety profile of fueling stations. Opportunities analyzed include potential new methods of hydrogen delivery, as well as alternative placements of station technologies (i.e. rooftop/underground fuel storage). As interest in heavy-duty fueling stations and other markets for hydrogen grows, this study can inform techniques to reduce the footprint of heavy-duty stations as well. This work characterizes generic designs for stations with a capacity of 600 kg/day hydrogen dispensed and 4 dispenser hoses. Three base case designs (delivered gas, delivered liquid, and on-site electrolysis production) have been modified in 5 different ways to study the impacts of recently released fire code changes, colocation with gasoline refueling, alternate delivery assumptions, underground storage of hydrogen, and rooftop storage of hydrogen, resulting in a total of 32 different station designs. The footprints of the base case stations range from 13,000 to 21,000 ft2 . A significant focus of this study is the NFPA 2 requirements, especially the prescribed setback distances for bulk gaseous or liquid hydrogen storage. While the prescribed distances are large in some cases, these setback distances are found to have a nuanced impact on station lot size; considerations of the delivery truck path, traffic flow, parking, and convenience store location are also important. Station designs that utilize underground and rooftop storage can reduce footprint but may not be practical or economical. For example, burying hydrogen storage tanks underground can reduce footprint, but the cost savings they enable depend on the cost of burial and the cost land. Siting and economic analysis of station lot sizes illustrate the benefit of smaller station footprints in the flexibility and cost savings they can provide. This study can be used as a reference that provides examples of the key design differences that fueling stations can incorporate, the approximate sizes of generic station lots, and considerations that might be unique to particular designs.

Research Organization:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Organization:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Sustainable Transportation Office. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Office
DOE Contract Number:
Report Number(s):
SAND-2020-2796; 684729
Country of Publication:
United States