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Title: Anatomy of a Cooling Flow: The Feedback Response to Pure Cooling in the Core of the Phoenix Cluster

Abstract

We present new, deep observations of the Phoenix cluster from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array. These data provide an order of magnitude improvement in depth and/or angular resolution at X-ray, optical, and radio wavelengths, yielding an unprecedented view of the core of the Phoenix cluster. We find that the one-dimensional temperature and entropy profiles are consistent with expectations for pure-cooling hydrodynamic simulations and analytic descriptions of homogeneous, steady-state cooling flow models. In the inner ~10 kpc, the cooling time is shorter by an order of magnitude than any other known cluster, while the ratio of the cooling time to freefall time approaches unity, signaling that the ICM is unable to resist multiphase condensation on kpc scales. When we consider the thermodynamic profiles in two dimensions, we find that the cooling is highly asymmetric. The bulk of the cooling in the inner ~20 kpc is confined to a low-entropy filament extending northward from the central galaxy. We detect a substantial reservoir of cool (10^4 K) gas (as traced by the [OII] doublet), which is coincident with the low-entropy filament. The bulk of this cool gas is draped around and behind amore » pair of X-ray cavities, presumably bubbles that have been inflated by radio jets, which are detected for the first time on kpc scales. These data support a picture in which AGN feedback is promoting the formation of a multiphase medium via a combination of ordered buoyant uplift and locally enhanced turbulence. These processes ought to counteract the tendency for buoyancy to suppress condensation, leading to rapid cooling along the jet axis. The recent mechanical outburst has sufficient energy to offset cooling, and appears to be coupling to the ICM via a cocoon shock, raising the entropy in the direction orthogonal to the radio jets.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [1]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [4];  [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [15];  [1];  [16];  [17]
  1. MIT, MKI
  2. Waterloo U.
  3. Michigan State U.
  4. Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.
  5. Missouri U., Kansas City
  6. Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
  7. NASA, Goddard
  8. MIT
  9. Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept.
  10. Montreal U.
  11. Maryland U.
  12. Melbourne U.
  13. Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.
  14. Trieste Observ.
  15. Michigan U.
  16. Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.
  17. Leiden Observ.
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1597063
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1904.08942; FERMILAB-PUB-19-673-AE
oai:inspirehep.net:1774635
DOE Contract Number:  
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophys.J.
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 885; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

McDonald, M., McNamara, B. R., Voit, G. M., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Brodwin, M., Canning, R. E.A., Florian, M. K., Garmire, G. P., Gaspari, M., Gladders, M. D., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Kara, E., Reichardt, C. L., Russell, H. R., Saro, A., Sharon, K., Somboonpanyakul, T., Tremblay, G. R., and van Weeren, R. J. Anatomy of a Cooling Flow: The Feedback Response to Pure Cooling in the Core of the Phoenix Cluster. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab464c.
McDonald, M., McNamara, B. R., Voit, G. M., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Brodwin, M., Canning, R. E.A., Florian, M. K., Garmire, G. P., Gaspari, M., Gladders, M. D., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Kara, E., Reichardt, C. L., Russell, H. R., Saro, A., Sharon, K., Somboonpanyakul, T., Tremblay, G. R., & van Weeren, R. J. Anatomy of a Cooling Flow: The Feedback Response to Pure Cooling in the Core of the Phoenix Cluster. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab464c.
McDonald, M., McNamara, B. R., Voit, G. M., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Brodwin, M., Canning, R. E.A., Florian, M. K., Garmire, G. P., Gaspari, M., Gladders, M. D., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Kara, E., Reichardt, C. L., Russell, H. R., Saro, A., Sharon, K., Somboonpanyakul, T., Tremblay, G. R., and van Weeren, R. J. Thu . "Anatomy of a Cooling Flow: The Feedback Response to Pure Cooling in the Core of the Phoenix Cluster". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/ab464c. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1597063.
@article{osti_1597063,
title = {Anatomy of a Cooling Flow: The Feedback Response to Pure Cooling in the Core of the Phoenix Cluster},
author = {McDonald, M. and McNamara, B. R. and Voit, G. M. and Bayliss, M. and Benson, B. A. and Brodwin, M. and Canning, R. E.A. and Florian, M. K. and Garmire, G. P. and Gaspari, M. and Gladders, M. D. and Hlavacek-Larrondo, J. and Kara, E. and Reichardt, C. L. and Russell, H. R. and Saro, A. and Sharon, K. and Somboonpanyakul, T. and Tremblay, G. R. and van Weeren, R. J.},
abstractNote = {We present new, deep observations of the Phoenix cluster from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array. These data provide an order of magnitude improvement in depth and/or angular resolution at X-ray, optical, and radio wavelengths, yielding an unprecedented view of the core of the Phoenix cluster. We find that the one-dimensional temperature and entropy profiles are consistent with expectations for pure-cooling hydrodynamic simulations and analytic descriptions of homogeneous, steady-state cooling flow models. In the inner ~10 kpc, the cooling time is shorter by an order of magnitude than any other known cluster, while the ratio of the cooling time to freefall time approaches unity, signaling that the ICM is unable to resist multiphase condensation on kpc scales. When we consider the thermodynamic profiles in two dimensions, we find that the cooling is highly asymmetric. The bulk of the cooling in the inner ~20 kpc is confined to a low-entropy filament extending northward from the central galaxy. We detect a substantial reservoir of cool (10^4 K) gas (as traced by the [OII] doublet), which is coincident with the low-entropy filament. The bulk of this cool gas is draped around and behind a pair of X-ray cavities, presumably bubbles that have been inflated by radio jets, which are detected for the first time on kpc scales. These data support a picture in which AGN feedback is promoting the formation of a multiphase medium via a combination of ordered buoyant uplift and locally enhanced turbulence. These processes ought to counteract the tendency for buoyancy to suppress condensation, leading to rapid cooling along the jet axis. The recent mechanical outburst has sufficient energy to offset cooling, and appears to be coupling to the ICM via a cocoon shock, raising the entropy in the direction orthogonal to the radio jets.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/ab464c},
journal = {Astrophys.J.},
number = 1,
volume = 885,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {10}
}

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