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Title: Collaboration with NSTX in Calculations of Radiofrequency and Neutral Beam Heating and Current Drive

Abstract

The overall objective of this project was to advance the understanding of heating and current drive necessary for toroidal magnetic confinement fusion energy reactors, and to provide accurate models for these sources to aid in understanding magneto-hydrodynamic, transport and boundary physics issues. Increased understanding is provided by computer simulation using the underlying physics laws, and will lead to greater reliability and increased efficiency of a power producing fusion reactor. The proposed work entailed applications of existing CompX Fokker-Planck, ray tracing, full-wave microwave, and particle diffusion calculator codes to the National Spherical Torus Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Special features of NSTX include that large ion orbits are emphasized in its geometry and thus offer a major opportunity within fusion research for focused exploration of their ubiquitous effects, including comparison with simulation codes. The CompX CQL3D Fokker-Planck code was be further adapted to the finite-orbit-width physics. Comparison with experiment ensured that the computer codes have sufficient accuracy to accurately model the experiments. Nonthermal distributions of energetic ions are produced in experiments-- and modeled with the codes-- exhibiting the signatures of auxiliary heating, transport, and radiation processes within the plasma. Using physics-based modeling, in conjunction with experimental data, nonthermal distributions canmore » provide keys to validation and quantification of auxiliary heating physics. Nonthermal distributions also hold particular information on radial transport processes, not obscured by the smoothing Maxwellization effects of Coulomb collisions. Generally, radial transport is not well understood but is a key to efficient fusion energy production. By comparison with Fokker-Planck modeling, the velocity dependence of radial transport coefficients becomes experimentally accessible, particularly in cases of well-modeled sources such as neutral beams, fast wave power, or the toroidal electric field. It is clear from modeling of fast-wave interactions with ions that finite-orbit-width effects play a significant role. For example, a different set of ions is computed to intersect a given cyclotron resonance depending on whether or not radial orbit drifts are taken into account. Also, radial transport, associated bootstrap current, and alpha channeling depend on radial drifts. Ion cyclotron heating above the first harmonic interacts preferentially with higher velocity ions, giving large radial drifts. The CQL3D Fokker-Planck code, maintained by the proposers, is a physics based model used extensively within the US fusion community to compare with and interpret experimental observations. At the beginning of this grant, bounce-averages of the rf quasilinear and other operators have been performed neglecting the radial drifts which give finite orbit widths to the particle orbits. The proposed work included a major upgrade to CQL3D to include finite-orbit-width effects be accounted for by performing the bounce-averages of rf and neutral beam fast ions along guiding center orbits. This CQL3D enhancement provided microwave and neutral beam contributions to neoclassical radial transport coefficients for nonthermal distributions, and substantially increased the comprehensiveness of the ion model. Additional work validated Fokker-Planck and ray tracing modeling of neutral beam and high harmonic fast wave absorption and current drive against the NSTX experiment, as had been very successful for electron cyclotron current drive in the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics and lower hybrid waves on C-Mod at MIT. The validation work was in conjunction with staff and graduate students at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This DOE grant supported fusion energy research, a potential long-term solution to the world's energy needs. The research grant under consideration, DE-SC0006614, provided research support at the 0.3 Full-Time-Equivalent level for application of computer models to aid in understanding and projecting efficacy of heating and current drive sources in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, a tokamak variant, at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The NSTX experiment explores the physics of very tight aspect ratio, almost spherical tokamaks, aiming at producing steady-state fusion plasmas. The current drive is an integral part of the steady-state concept, maintaining the magnetic geometry in the steady-state tokamak.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]
  1. CompX, Del Mar, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
CompX, Del Mar, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Fusion Energy Sciences (FES)
Contributing Org.:
Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1574468
Report Number(s):
DOE-CompX-6614-0
TRN: US2100345
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0006614
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Related Information: PETROV, Yu.V., HARVEY, R.W., “A Fully-Neoclassical Finite-Orbit-Width Version of the CQL3D Fokker-Planck Code”, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 58 (2016) 115001 (20 pages).doi:10.1088/0741-3335/58/11/115001Harvey, R.W. Petrov, Yu- Liu, D.- Heidbrink, W. Taylor, Gary- Bonoli, P., “Temporal Dynamics of NSTX NBI+HHFW Discharges using CQL3D-Hybrid-FOW” AIP Conference Proceedings: 20th Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, at Sorrento, Italy, Volume: 1580, (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4864551
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Harvey, R. W.. Collaboration with NSTX in Calculations of Radiofrequency and Neutral Beam Heating and Current Drive. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.2172/1574468.
Harvey, R. W.. Collaboration with NSTX in Calculations of Radiofrequency and Neutral Beam Heating and Current Drive. United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1574468
Harvey, R. W.. Thu . "Collaboration with NSTX in Calculations of Radiofrequency and Neutral Beam Heating and Current Drive". United States. https://doi.org/10.2172/1574468. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1574468.
@article{osti_1574468,
title = {Collaboration with NSTX in Calculations of Radiofrequency and Neutral Beam Heating and Current Drive},
author = {Harvey, R. W.},
abstractNote = {The overall objective of this project was to advance the understanding of heating and current drive necessary for toroidal magnetic confinement fusion energy reactors, and to provide accurate models for these sources to aid in understanding magneto-hydrodynamic, transport and boundary physics issues. Increased understanding is provided by computer simulation using the underlying physics laws, and will lead to greater reliability and increased efficiency of a power producing fusion reactor. The proposed work entailed applications of existing CompX Fokker-Planck, ray tracing, full-wave microwave, and particle diffusion calculator codes to the National Spherical Torus Experiment at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Special features of NSTX include that large ion orbits are emphasized in its geometry and thus offer a major opportunity within fusion research for focused exploration of their ubiquitous effects, including comparison with simulation codes. The CompX CQL3D Fokker-Planck code was be further adapted to the finite-orbit-width physics. Comparison with experiment ensured that the computer codes have sufficient accuracy to accurately model the experiments. Nonthermal distributions of energetic ions are produced in experiments-- and modeled with the codes-- exhibiting the signatures of auxiliary heating, transport, and radiation processes within the plasma. Using physics-based modeling, in conjunction with experimental data, nonthermal distributions can provide keys to validation and quantification of auxiliary heating physics. Nonthermal distributions also hold particular information on radial transport processes, not obscured by the smoothing Maxwellization effects of Coulomb collisions. Generally, radial transport is not well understood but is a key to efficient fusion energy production. By comparison with Fokker-Planck modeling, the velocity dependence of radial transport coefficients becomes experimentally accessible, particularly in cases of well-modeled sources such as neutral beams, fast wave power, or the toroidal electric field. It is clear from modeling of fast-wave interactions with ions that finite-orbit-width effects play a significant role. For example, a different set of ions is computed to intersect a given cyclotron resonance depending on whether or not radial orbit drifts are taken into account. Also, radial transport, associated bootstrap current, and alpha channeling depend on radial drifts. Ion cyclotron heating above the first harmonic interacts preferentially with higher velocity ions, giving large radial drifts. The CQL3D Fokker-Planck code, maintained by the proposers, is a physics based model used extensively within the US fusion community to compare with and interpret experimental observations. At the beginning of this grant, bounce-averages of the rf quasilinear and other operators have been performed neglecting the radial drifts which give finite orbit widths to the particle orbits. The proposed work included a major upgrade to CQL3D to include finite-orbit-width effects be accounted for by performing the bounce-averages of rf and neutral beam fast ions along guiding center orbits. This CQL3D enhancement provided microwave and neutral beam contributions to neoclassical radial transport coefficients for nonthermal distributions, and substantially increased the comprehensiveness of the ion model. Additional work validated Fokker-Planck and ray tracing modeling of neutral beam and high harmonic fast wave absorption and current drive against the NSTX experiment, as had been very successful for electron cyclotron current drive in the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics and lower hybrid waves on C-Mod at MIT. The validation work was in conjunction with staff and graduate students at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This DOE grant supported fusion energy research, a potential long-term solution to the world's energy needs. The research grant under consideration, DE-SC0006614, provided research support at the 0.3 Full-Time-Equivalent level for application of computer models to aid in understanding and projecting efficacy of heating and current drive sources in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, a tokamak variant, at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The NSTX experiment explores the physics of very tight aspect ratio, almost spherical tokamaks, aiming at producing steady-state fusion plasmas. The current drive is an integral part of the steady-state concept, maintaining the magnetic geometry in the steady-state tokamak.},
doi = {10.2172/1574468},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1574468}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {11}
}