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Title: Equation-based object-oriented modeling and simulation for data center cooling: A case study

Abstract

© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Data center cooling accounts for about 1% of electricity usage in the United States. Computer models are pivotal in designing and operating energy-efficient cooling systems. Compared to conventional building performance simulation programs, the equation-based object-oriented modeling language Modelica is an emerging approach that can enable fast prototyping and dynamic simulation of cooling systems. In this case study, we first modeled the cooling and control systems of an actual data center located in Massachusetts using the open-source Modelica Buildings library, and then calibrated a baseline model based on measurement data. The simulation of the baseline model identified several operation-related issues in the cooling and control systems, such as degraded cooling coils, improper dead band in control settings, and simultaneous cooling and heating in air handlers. Afterwards, we used a sequential search technique as well as an optimization scheme to investigate the energy saving potentials for different energy efficiency measures aiming to address the abovementioned issues. Simulation results show potential energy savings up to 24% by resolving identified control-related issues and optimizing the supply air temperature.

Authors:
; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Building Technologies Office (EE-5B)
OSTI Identifier:
1545550
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1526586; OSTI ID: 1547836
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; EE0007688
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energy and Buildings
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 186; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0378-7788
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
Equation-Based; Object-Oriented; Modelica; Data Center

Citation Formats

Fu, Yangyang, Zuo, Wangda, Wetter, Michael, VanGilder, Jim W., Han, Xu, and Plamondon, David. Equation-based object-oriented modeling and simulation for data center cooling: A case study. United States: N. p., 2019. Web. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.01.018.
Fu, Yangyang, Zuo, Wangda, Wetter, Michael, VanGilder, Jim W., Han, Xu, & Plamondon, David. Equation-based object-oriented modeling and simulation for data center cooling: A case study. United States. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.01.018.
Fu, Yangyang, Zuo, Wangda, Wetter, Michael, VanGilder, Jim W., Han, Xu, and Plamondon, David. Fri . "Equation-based object-oriented modeling and simulation for data center cooling: A case study". United States. doi:10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.01.018.
@article{osti_1545550,
title = {Equation-based object-oriented modeling and simulation for data center cooling: A case study},
author = {Fu, Yangyang and Zuo, Wangda and Wetter, Michael and VanGilder, Jim W. and Han, Xu and Plamondon, David},
abstractNote = {© 2019 Elsevier B.V. Data center cooling accounts for about 1% of electricity usage in the United States. Computer models are pivotal in designing and operating energy-efficient cooling systems. Compared to conventional building performance simulation programs, the equation-based object-oriented modeling language Modelica is an emerging approach that can enable fast prototyping and dynamic simulation of cooling systems. In this case study, we first modeled the cooling and control systems of an actual data center located in Massachusetts using the open-source Modelica Buildings library, and then calibrated a baseline model based on measurement data. The simulation of the baseline model identified several operation-related issues in the cooling and control systems, such as degraded cooling coils, improper dead band in control settings, and simultaneous cooling and heating in air handlers. Afterwards, we used a sequential search technique as well as an optimization scheme to investigate the energy saving potentials for different energy efficiency measures aiming to address the abovementioned issues. Simulation results show potential energy savings up to 24% by resolving identified control-related issues and optimizing the supply air temperature.},
doi = {10.1016/j.enbuild.2019.01.018},
journal = {Energy and Buildings},
issn = {0378-7788},
number = C,
volume = 186,
place = {United States},
year = {2019},
month = {3}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on January 22, 2020
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